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Publication #SS-AGR-404

Spiderwort Control in Hay Fields and Pastures1

Michael Durham, Jason Ferrell, and Brent Sellers2

Figure 1. 
[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Spiderwort (Tradescantia ohiensis Raf.) is a native perennial species found throughout the eastern half of the US. It has a large, fleshy stem with long and grass-like leaves. The flowers have three petals that occur in dense clusters. These petals are purple to pink in color and approximately 0.5 inches wide and 0.75 inches long. Spiderwort emerges in early spring, then flowers and produces seed through midsummer.

Figure 2. 

Spiderwort can be easily identified by its clusters of colorful flowers with three petals.


Credit:

Mike Durham, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Control of spiderwort is difficult due to the plant’s large root crown that provides reserves for regrowth after canopy burndown.


Credit:

Mike Durham, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Spiderwort is problematic in grazing systems because it is largely avoided by cattle. The large, fleshy stem also makes this plant an issue in hay production. When cut with a grass forage, spiderwort does not dry at the same rate as grass and can cause spoilage when the hay is baled.

Control

Durham and Ferrell conducted experiments in High Springs, Florida, to compare the activity of commonly used pasture herbicides on fully emerged and flowering spiderwort. All herbicides were applied with crop oil concentrate (COC) at 1% v/v.

Spiderwort response to all herbicides was similar at 1 week after treatment (WAT). Control was less than 50% (Table 1). Triclopyr resulted in 86% control, but all other herbicides had very little impact at 4 WAT. Triclopyr exhibited excellent control (95%) at 8 WAT, while the other treatments remained at 50% or less. The efficacy of triclopyr against spiderwort began to decline shortly after 8 WAT (data not shown), and spiderwort re-established in all plots.

Conclusion

No single herbicide application was found to fully control spiderwort. The greatest level of control was reached when triclopyr was applied at 32 fl oz/acre. Canopy growth did not recommence in the triclopyr plots for another 4 to 6 weeks after the initial burndown. However, the majority of the spiderwort plants did eventually regrow in the triclopyr plots. Therefore, it is important to keep in mind that the results of triclopyr application may be temporary. With this timeline in mind, producers should treat infested fields at least a month prior to cutting hay. Fortunately, producers should have at least a month after burndown to cut and bale their hay without experiencing any spiderwort-related issues. It will take multiple cycles of regrowth burndown to reduce the population in a field. When feasible, hand removal is still the most effective control method.

Tables

Table 1. 

Control of spiderwort at 1, 4, and 8 weeks after treatment.

   

Weeks After Treatment

   

1

4

8

 

Rate (fl oz/ac)

% control

2,4-D + dicamba

32

33

27

30

GrazonNext HL

24

31

29

50

2,4-D amine

48

30

27

33

Triclopyr ester (Remedy, others)

32

45

86

95*

Vista XRT

12

25

31

18

*Regrowth of spiderwort began in triclopyr plots 10 to 12 WAT.

Data collected by M. Durham and J. Ferrell (2014).

Footnotes

1.

This document is SS-AGR-404, one of a series of the Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Michael Durham, biologist; Jason Ferrell, professor, Agronomy Department; and Brent Sellers, associate professor, Agronomy Department, UF/IFAS Extension Range Cattle Research and Education Center, Ona, FL 33865; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition. All chemicals should be used in accordance with directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.