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Publication #ENY-996

Susceptibility of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) to Commonly Used Insecticides Approved for Managing Arthropod Pests in Florida Strawberries1

Braden Evans, Karol Krey, and Justin Renkema2

Florida Strawberry Production

The Florida strawberry industry is valued at over $300 million, accounting for 15,000 jobs and 15% of total US strawberry production (1). Owing to the subtropical climate, Florida strawberries are produced during the winter months, representing 100% of US winter strawberry production. Nearly all of Florida’s strawberries (~95%) are grown in Hillsborough and Manatee counties, centered in the Plant City area. With high production costs and increasing price pressure from strawberry imports grown in Mexico, Florida producers are dependent on effective and efficient pest management programs (1) (Figure 1). The aim of this document is to inform Florida strawberry producers and Extension personnel on the compatibility of registered miticides and insecticides with commercially available predatory mites used as biological controls.

Figure 1. 

Early season Florida strawberry transplants. Florida strawberries are grown in raised beds with plastic mulch covering over sterilized soil at a production cost of over $27,000 per acre (1).


Credit:

Babu Panthi, University of Florida.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Twospotted Spider Mite

The most important arthropod pest in Florida strawberries is the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (1). The twospotted spider mite (TSSM) is a highly polyphagous pest of many horticultural crops throughout the world, with over 1,100 host plant species reported (2). In strawberry cultivation, TSSM inhabits the underside of developed leaves, forming silk webs and causing silvery-white patches (3). The TSSM uses its specially adapted mouthparts to pierce and suck the contents of individual plant cells (3). The feeding removes the sap from the cells, causing pale areas to appear on the upper surface of leaves (3). As TSSM continues to feed, the foliage begins to bronze, becomes dry, and the leaves drop off the plants (Figure 2). Total defoliation can result if an infestation is not controlled (3).

Figure 2. 

Adult and nymph twospotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) crawling along webs and stems, and the webbing and foliar discoloration on strawberry plants resulting from a severe twospotted spider mite infestation.


Credit:

Lyle Buss and James Castner, University of Florida.


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Many miticide products with different modes of action have been developed for TSSM control. Although strawberry producers are dependent on regular miticide applications, TSSM have demonstrated a propensity to develop resistance against a variety of compounds. In a review of reported cases of insecticide/miticide resistance, TSSM ranked first among all insect and mite pests, with control failures due to resistance reported from 95 different active ingredients (4). A high reproductive rate, a short life cycle, and the ability to reproduce without mating are counted among the biological attributes contributing to rapid and frequent resistance development in TSSM (5). Due to the tendency of TSSM to develop resistance to a wide array of miticides, biological control with predatory mites has been developed and is used for TSSM management in Florida strawberry.

Phytoseiulus persimilis

Phytoseiulus persimilis (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite that is used as a biological control agent against TSSM in a range of horticultural crops. P. persimilis is considered a specialist predator and feeds almost exclusively on mites in the genus Tetranychus (6, 7, 8). A native of Chile, P. persimilis has been introduced throughout the world as a biological control agent targeting spider mites in ornamental, vegetable, and fruit crops, including strawberries (9, 10, 11).

Phytoseiulus persimilis features several characteristics that enable it to effectively control TSSM populations. It is a voracious and efficient predator, able to consume up to 20 individual TSSM of all life stages (eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults) in a 24-hour period (12) (Figure 3). Nymph and adult P. persimilis actively seek out and feed on spider mites, but the larval stage is non-feeding. Under optimal environmental conditions, i.e., temperatures between 20‒30°C (68°F‒86°F) and relative humidity above 60%, P. persimilis may complete its entire life cycle within 5 days, as compared to spider mite development times of up to 20 days (12). Adult P. persimilis may live as long as 35 days, with highly fecund females producing 2‒3 eggs per day, up to as many as 60 eggs in a lifetime (12). These various attributes have led to the commercialization and widespread use of P. persimilis as a biological pest management product.

Figure 3. 

Adult Phytoseiulus persimilis with a recently consumed twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae).


Credit:

James Castner, University of Florida


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Effective control of TSSM is dependent on appropriately timed introductions of predators into infested crops. Successful pest suppression has been reported when P. persimilis is applied early in a TSSM infestation, before pest populations increase to severely damaging levels (13, 14). In Florida strawberry fields, TSSM infestations are often patchily-distributed. Inoculation densities of five adult P. persimilis per plant can achieve an acceptable level of control. Although P. persimilis is blind, it can disperse rapidly throughout the crop, following chemical cues such as kairomones—the volatile compounds emitted by plants in response to feeding damage—as well as physical cues, including the webbing produced by TSSM (15, 16).

Neoseiulus californicus

Neoseiulus (formerly Amblyseius) californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is another species of predatory mite that is commercially available as a biological control agent (11). Wild populations of N. californicus occur on fruit, vegetable, and ornamental crops throughout the world in temperate and subtropical regions (17). Like P. persimilis, N. californicus has a preference for feeding on mites in the family Tetranychidae, and it is commonly employed in cultivated crops against TSSM (Figure 4) (11). However, N. californicus is highly polyphagous, as compared to the narrow host range of P. persimilis. Neoseiulus californicus can subsist on different mite species, small insects, and even pollen in the absence of preferred prey items (18, 19). Whereas P. persimilis populations tend to perish when TSSM resources have been exhausted, N. californicus can establish permanent populations when it is introduced into new areas. Some of the biological attributes contributing to the success of N. californicus in colonizing new areas include its acceptance of a wide range of prey items, generally low food requirements, and low tendency for cannibalism (11, 20, 21). Neoseiulus californicus has also demonstrated an ability to develop resistant to pesticides, favoring its persistence in cropping systems where pesticides are used selectively and in moderation (22, 23, 24). Neoseiulus californicus favors warm temperatures, but can withstand a range of 10°C‒33°C (50°F‒91°F), with a preference for 40%‒80% relative humidity (25). Neoseiulus californicus lay an average of 2 eggs per day and have an adult lifespan of ~20 days, with total lifecycle development time ranging from 26‒37 days (25).

Figure 4. 

Adult Neoseiulus californicus attacking a twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae).


Credit:

Lyle Buss, University of Florida


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Adult P. persimilis have been shown to consume up to 3 times more TSSM than adult N. californicus (26). The lower rate of TSSM consumption by N. californicus causes for a slower reduction in TSSM populations, but suppression of TSSM can be sustained over a longer period than with P. persimilis (17). Release rates of 1 N. californicus adult per 10 TSSM have been shown to effectively suppress TSSM. Different application techniques have been examined, with a predator-in-first technique (low release rates prior to TSSM detection) and site-specific releases (targeting specific “hot spot” areas in infested fields), showing good suppression results at lower cost to the grower (25, 27).

Chemical Pesticides

Approximately 15% of Florida strawberries are produced with the use of predatory mites to control TSSM (1). However, severe TSSM outbreaks and the management of other, less common insect and mite pests regularly require the use of chemical insecticides and miticides (1). Given the importance of the biological control services provided by P. persimilis and N. californicus in this production system, there is a need to understand potential detrimental effects of pesticides on beneficial predators (28, 29).

Koppert Biological Systems and Biobest Sustainable Crop Management, distributors of commercial predatory mite formulations, produce side-effect manuals designed to summarize the compatibility of common commercial chemical products with beneficial organisms. These manuals can be of significant value to growers, allowing them to anticipate potentially antagonistic interactions among management efforts while addressing complex pest problems. Understanding the potential for undesirable, non-target effects of chemical sprays gives growers the opportunity to plan pesticide application timing to minimize exposure of predator releases, or to select reduced risk pesticides when beneficial organisms are present in the field.

The side-effect manuals can be found at the following links:

https://www.koppert.com/side-effects/

https://www.biobestgroup.com/en/side-effect-manual

The Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida (2017‒2018) lists 63 pesticide products as registered for use against arthropod pests in Florida strawberries, including 42 conventional products and 21 OMRI-listed (Organic Materials Review Institute) organic formulations. Appendices A and B has been developed as a tool for growers and extension personnel to cross-reference the effect of each of these products (as well as the most recently registered Nexter WP miticide and Exirel insecticide) on P. persimilis and N. californicus.

The toxic effects in the appendix tables are categorized as non-toxic (i.e. causing less than 25% mortality in P. persimilis and/or N. californicus), slightly toxic (25‒50%), moderately toxic (50‒75%), and highly toxic (>75%). Appendix A summarizes all of the products registered for use in conventional fields, and appendix B summarizes all of the products registered for use in organic fields (OMRI-listed products). Commercial formulations containing a combination of two different active ingredients are assigned the rating of the most toxic component. The data summarized from the side-effects manuals is comprised of mortality rates resulting from foliar spray applications on motile (adult and nymph) stages of predatory mites. When the toxic effects reported in the manuals are inconsistent, a range representing values in both manuals is reported.

Among conventional insecticides and miticides (Appendix A), nearly as many products are rated as highly toxic to both predator species (8) as those rated non-toxic (9), with the majority of products (27) falling into an intermediate toxicity range. Florida strawberry producers have some pest management alternatives that offer reduced risks to beneficial predatory mites. Among OMRI-listed organic pesticides (Appendix B), only M-pede (potassium salts of fatty acids) is rated as highly toxic to both predator species, with five formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis rated as non-toxic to both species. While the toxicity ratings of most products are similar for both predator species, N. californicus is, generally, less susceptible to insecticides than P. persimilis. Nine conventional products are rated as highly toxic to N. californicus, versus 13 for P. persimilis, while 11 products rank as non-toxic to both species. Among OMRI-listed products, there are 9 non-toxic products and 1 highly toxic product affecting N. californicus, as compared to 6 non-toxic and 2 highly toxic products affecting P. persimilis. These summaries can serve as a useful tool to growers, helping to inform decisions on insecticide and miticide applications in strawberry fields.

Sources

  1. Mossler, M. 2012. Florida Crop/Pest Management Profiles: Strawberry. CIR1239. Gainesville: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi037

  2. Marinosci, C., S. Magalhães, E. Macke, M. Navajas, D. Carbonell, C. Devaux, and I. Olivieri. 2015. “Effects of host plant on life-history traits in the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae.” Ecology and Evolution. 5: 3151–3158

  3. Fasulo, T. R. and H. A. Denmark. 2009. Twospotted spider mite. EENY150. Gainesville: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in307

  4. Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database. “Tetranychus urticae.” https://www.pesticideresistance.org/display.php?page=species&arId=536.

  5. Van Leeuwen, T., J. Vontas, A. Tsagkarakou, W. Dermauw, and L. Tirry. 2010. “Acaricide resistance mechanisms in the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae and other important Acari: a review.” Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 40(8): 563‒572.

  6. Ashihara, W., T. Hamamura, and N. Shinkaji. 1978. “Feeding reproduction, and development of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acarina:Phytoseiidae) on various food substances.” Bull. Fruit Tree Res. Stn. Ser. E. 2: 91‒98.

  7. Van den Boom, C. E. M., T. A. Van Beek, and M. Dicke. 2002. “Attraction of Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) towards volatiles from various Tetranychus urticae-infested plant species.” Bulletin of Entomological Research. 92(6): 539‒546.

  8. Chant, D. A. 1961. “An experiment in biological control of Tetranychus telarius (L.) (Acarina: Tetranychidae) in a greenhouse using the predacious mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Phytoseiidae).” The Canadian Entomologist. 93(6): 437‒443.

  9. Laing, J. E. and C. B. Huffaker. 1969. “Comparative studies of predation by Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Nesbitt) (Acarina: Phytoseiidae) on populations of Tetranychus urticae koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae).” Researches on Population Ecology. 11(1): 105‒126.

  10. McMurtry, J. A. 1977. “Some predaceous mites [Phytoseiidae] on citrus in the Mediterranean region.” BioControl. 22(1): 19‒30.

  11. McMurtry, J.A. and A. B. Croft. 1997. “Life-styles of Phytoseiidae mites and their roles in biological control.” Annual Review of Entomology. 42: 291‒321.

  12. Hoffmann, M. P. and A. C. Frodsham. 1993. Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Ithaca: Cornell University Cooperative Extension. 63 pp.

  13. Cross, J. V. 1984. “Biological control of two‐spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) by Phytoseiulus persimilis on strawberries grown in walk‐in plastic tunnels, and a simplified method of spider mite population assessment.” Plant Pathology. 33(3): 417‒423.

  14. Wysoki M. 1985. “Outdoor crops.” In: World Crop Pests. Spider Mites. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control, Vol. 1B. Edited by W. Helle and M. W. Sabelis. pp. 375–384. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

  15. Sznajder, B., M. W. Sabelis, and M. Egas. 2011. “Innate Responses of the Predatory Mite Phytoseiulus Persimilis to a Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile.” Experimental & Applied Acarology. 54: 125–138.

  16. McMurtry, J. A. 1982. “The use of phytoseiids for biological control: progress and future prospects.” In Recent advances in knowledge of the Phytoseiidae. pp. 23-48.

  17. Rhodes, E. M. and O. E. Liburd. 2006. “Evaluation of predatory mites and Acramite for control of twospotted spider mites in strawberries in north central Florida.” Journal of Economic Entomology. 99(4): 1291‒1298.

  18. Schausberger, P. and A. Walzer. 2001. “Combined versus single species release of predaceous mites: predator–predator interactions and pest suppression.” Biological Control. 20(3): 269‒278

  19. Castagnoli, M., M. Liguori, and S. Simoni. 1999. “Effect of two different host plants on biological features of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor).” International Journal of Acarology. 25(2):145‒150.

  20. Castagnoli, M. and L. Falchini. 1993. “Suitability of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (Acari Tarsonemidae) as prey for Amblyseius californicus (McGregor) (Acari Phytoseiidae).” Redia. 76: 273–279.

  21. Croft, B. A., L. N. Monetti, and P. D. Pratt. 1998. “Comparative life histories and predation types: are Neoseiulus californicus and N. fallacies (Acari: Phytoseiidae) similar type II selective predators of spider mites.” Environmental Entomology. 27: 531‒538.

  22. Croft, B. A. 1990. “Developing a philosophy and program of pesticide resistance management.” In Pesticide resistance in arthropods. pp. 277-296.

  23. Blümel, S. 1999. “Susceptibility of Neoseiulus californicus to pesticides in the laboratory compared to other predatory mites.” In October meeting of the IOBC/WPRS WG Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms. 26:30.

  24. Castagnoli, M., M. Liguori, S. Simoni, and C. Duso. 2005. “Toxicity of some insecticides to Tetranychus urticae, Neoseiulus californicus and Tydeus californicus.” BioControl. 50(4): 611‒622.

  25. Rhodes, E. M. and O. E. Liburd. 2015. Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae). EENY359. Gainesville: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in639

  26. Gilstrap, F. E. and D. D. Friese. 1985. “The predatory potential of Phytoseiulus persimilis, Amblyseius californicus, and Metaseiulus occidentalis (Acarina: Phytoseiidae).” International Journal of Acarology. 11(3): 163‒168.

  27. Liu R., T. W. Nyoike, and O. E. Liburd. 2016. “Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.” Experimental and Applied Acarology. 70: 189‒204.

  28. Fraulo, A.B. and O. E. Liburd. 2007. “Biological control of twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, with predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, in strawberries.” Experimental and Applied Acarology. 43(2): 109.

  29. Cross, J. V., M. A. Easterbrook, A. M. Crook, D. Crook, J. D. Fitzgerald, P. J. Innocenzi, C. N. Jay, M. G. Solomon. 2001. “Review: Natural enemies and biocontrol of pests of strawberry in northern and central Europe.” Biocontrol Science and Technology. 11(2): 165‒216.

Tables

Appendix A. 

Summary of non-target toxicity classifications to Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus for selected conventional insecticides and miticides approved for managing arthropod pests of strawberry in Florida as reported in the Side Effects Manuals produced by Koppert Biological Systems and Biobest Sustainable Crop Management.

Product

Toxicity to P. persimilis

Toxicity to N. californicus

Active ingredient

Mode of action

Application rate/A

Pests targeted

Acramite 50 WS

slightly toxic

non-toxic

bifenazate

20D

0.75–1.0 lb

mites

Actara

highly toxic

slightly toxic

thiamethoxam

4A

1.5–4.0 oz

aphids, fruit flies & spotted wing drosophila, whiteflies

Admire Pro

highly toxic

highly toxic

imidacloprid

4A

soil: 10.5–14 fl oz foliar: 1.3 fl oz

aphids, beetles/weevils, caterpillars, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, grubs, whiteflies

Agri-Mek 0.15 EC

highly toxic

highly toxic

abamectin

6

16 oz

mites

Agri-Mek SC

highly toxic

highly toxic

abamectin

6

3.5 oz

mites

Assail 30 SG

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

acetamiprid

4A

1.9–6.9 oz

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, caterpillars, fruit flies & spotted wing drosophila, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Assail 70 WP

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

acetamiprid

4A

0.8–3.0 oz

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, caterpillars, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Athena

highly toxic

highly toxic

bifenthrin & avermectin B1

3A + 6

7.0–17.0 fl oz

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, mites, seed bugs, whiteflies

Beleaf 50 SG

non-toxic

non-toxic

flonicamid

29

2.8 oz

aphids, seed bugs

Brigade WSB

highly toxic

highly toxic

bifenthrin

3A

6.4–32.0 oz

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, mites, seed bugs

Brigadier

highly toxic

highly toxic

bifenthrin & imidacloprid

3A + 4A

5.1–6.14 fl oz

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, seed bugs, whiteflies

Carbaryl 4 L

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

carbaryl

1A

1–2 quarts

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, seed bugs

Coragen

non-toxic

non-toxic

chlorantraniliprole

28

3.5–7.5 fl oz

armyworms

Courier SC

non-toxic

non-toxic

buprofezin

16

9.0–13.6 oz

whiteflies

Danitol 2.4 EC

highly toxic

moderately toxic

fenpropathrin

3A

10.67–21.33 fl oz

armyworms, beetles/weevils, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, mites, seed bugs

Diazinon 50W

slightly toxic

slightly toxic

diazinon

1B

1–2 lbs

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, mites

Diazinon AG600 WBC

slightly toxic

slightly toxic

diazinon

1B

12.75–25.5 fl oz

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, mites

Dibrom 8-E

highly toxic

no information

naled

1B

1 pint

aphids, caterpillars, mites, thrips

Esteem 0.86 EC

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

pyriproxyfen

7D

10 fl oz

whiteflies

Esteem Ant Bait

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

pyriproxyfen

7

1.5–2.0 lbs

ants

Evergreen EC 60-6

highly toxic

highly toxic

pyrethrins & piperonyl butoxide

3A

2–16 fl oz

aphids, armyworms, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Exirel

non-toxic

no information

cyantraniliprole

28

10-20.5 fl oz

caterpillars, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, mites

Extinguish fire ant bait

non-toxic

no information

S-methoprene

7A

See label

ants

Govern 4E

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

chlorpyrifos

1B

See label

beetles/weevils, grubs

Intrepid 2F

non-toxic

non-toxic

methoxyfenozide

18

6–12 fl oz

armyworms

Kanemite 15 SC

non-toxic to slightly toxic

non-toxic

acequinocyl

20B

21–31 fl oz

mites

Lorsban 75WG

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

chlorpyrifos

1B

1.33–2.67 lbs

beetles/weevils, grubs

Malathion 5EC

slightly toxic

slightly toxic

malathion

1B

1.5–3.2 pints

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, mites, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Malathion 8F

slightly toxic

slightly toxic

malathion

1B

1.5–2.0 pints

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, mites, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Nealta

non-toxic

non-toxic

cyflumetofen

25

13.7 fl oz

mites

Nexter 75 WP

highly toxic

highly toxic

pyridaben

21A

1.6-3.3 lbs

mites

Oberon 2SC

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

spiromesifen

23

12–16 fl oz

mites, whiteflies

Platinum 75 SG

highly toxic

moderately toxic

thiamethoxam

4A

1.7–4.01 oz

aphids, grubs, whiteflies

Portal XLO

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

fenpyroximate

21A

2 pints

mites, whiteflies

Radiant SC

moderately toxic

highly toxic

spinetoram

5

6–10 fl oz

armyworms, caterpillars, thrips

Rimon 0.83EC

non-toxic

non-toxic

novaluron

15

9–12 fl oz

armyworms, beetles/weevils, crickets, cockroaches, seed bugs

Savey 50 DF

non-toxic

non-toxic

hexythiazox

10A

6 oz

mites

Sevin 4F

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

carbaryl

1A

1–2 quarts

armyworms, caterpillars, seed bugs

Sevin 80 Solupak

moderately to highly toxic

moderately toxic

carbaryl

1A

1.25–2.5 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars, seed bugs

Sivanto Prime

no information

no information

flupyradifurone

4D

7–14 fl oz

aphids, whiteflies

Vendex 50 WP

non-toxic

non-toxic

fenbutatin oxide

12B

1.5–2.0 lbs

mites

Vetica

non-toxic

non-toxic

buprofezin & flubendiamide

16 + 28

12.0–18.5 fl oz

whiteflies

Voliam Flexi

highly toxic

moderately toxic

thiamethoxam &chlorantraniliprole

4A + 28

2–5 oz

aphids, armyworms, whiteflies

Zeal

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

etoxazole

10B

2–3 oz

mites

Appendix B. 

Summary of non-target toxicity classifications to Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus for selected OMRI listed insecticides and miticides approved for managing arthropod pests of strawberry in Florida as reported in the Side Effects Manuals produced by Koppert Biological Systems and Biobest Sustainable Crop Management.

Product

Toxicity to P. Persimilis

Toxicity to N. Californicus

Active Ingredient

Mode of Action

Application Rate

Pests Targeted

Agree WG

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai strain GC-91

11A

0.5–2.0 lbs

armyworms

Aza-Direct

slightly to moderately toxic

non-toxic

azadirachtin

--

1–2 pints

aphids, armyworms, crickets, cockroaches, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, mites, thrips, whiteflies

Azera

highly toxic

non-toxic

azadirachtin & pyrethrins

3A

See label

aphids, armyworms, beetles/weevils, caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies

Biobit HP

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki

11A

0.5–2.0 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars

Botanigard ES

no information

no information

Beauvaria bassiana strain GHA

--

0.25–1 quart

aphids, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, grubs, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Deliver

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki

11A

0.25–1.5 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars

DiPel DF

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki

11A

0.5–2.0 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars

Entrust

slightly toxic

moderately toxic

spinosad

5

1.25–1.5 oz

armyworms, caterpillars, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, thrips

Grandevo

no information

no information

Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1

--

1–3 lbs

aphids, armyworms, caterpillars, mites, thrips, whiteflies

Javelin WG

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki

11A

0.25–1.5 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars

JMS Stylet Oil

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

paraffinic (mineral) oil

--

3 quarts/100 gal water

mites, whiteflies

MET52 EC

no information

no information

Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52

--

Drench: 40–80 fl oz/100

beetles/weevils, mites, thrips, whiteflies

M-Pede

highly toxic

highly toxic

potassium salts of fatty acids

--

See label

aphids, mites, whiteflies

Mycotrol ESO

no information

no information

Beauvaria bassiana strain GHA

--

0.25–1 quart

aphids, beetles/weevils, caterpillars, crickets, cockroaches, grubs, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

Neemix 4.5% EC

slightly to moderately toxic

non-toxic

azadirachtin

--

4–16 fl oz

aphids, armyworms, caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies

PFR-97 20%WDG

no information

no information

Isaria fumosoroseus Apopka strain 97

--

1–2 lbs

aphids, caterpillars, mites, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

PyGanic EC 5.0

no information

no information

pyrethrins

3A

See label

aphids, armyworms, fruit flies and spotted wing drosophila, seed bugs, thrips, whiteflies

SuffOil-X

no information

no information

unsulfonated residue of petroleum oil

--

1–2 gallons

aphids, mites, whiteflies

Trilogy

moderately toxic

moderately toxic

neem oil

--

0.5–2%

aphids, mites

Venerate XC

no information

no information

Burkholderia spp. Strain A396

--

1–8 quarts

caterpillars

Xentari

non-toxic

non-toxic

Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai

11A

0.5–2.0 lbs

armyworms, caterpillars

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-996, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date August 2018. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Braden Evans, postdoctoral associate; Karol Krey, postdoctoral associate; and Justin Renkema, associate professor; Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, UF/IFAS Extension, Wimauma, FL 33598.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.