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Publication #IPM-146

Guidelines for Purchasing and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides in Florida and Other States 1

Norman C. Leppla and Kenneth L. Johnson II2

This guide provides assistance in selecting, purchasing and using commercially available natural enemies and biopesticides for managing accurately diagnosed pest problems. It therefore applies only to situations in which the cause of a pest problem is known and a biological control solution is sought. To choose a commercial natural enemy product, first use Table 1 to select the habitat of your plant or animal pest problem and identify the insect or mite pest. Then select the types of natural enemies (parasitic nematodes, predatory mites, predatory insects, and parasitic wasps) and biopesticides available to manage these pests. The reference numbers correspond with the numbered scientific names of natural enemy and biopesticide products in Tables 2-6. Table 6 provides the scientific and product names and target pests for some of the most common microbial insecticides, nematicides and fungicides that often can be used alone or, if compatible, in combination with insect and mite natural enemies. Biopesticides included in Table 6, but not referenced in Table 1, are an insecticide for mosquito larvae (#62), another for grasshoppers (#64), a nematicide for nematodes that damage plants (#69), and eight microbial fungicides (#70-77). The biological control companies named in these tables are listed alphabetically in Table 7, along with their websites. Sources of information on obtaining and using commercial natural enemies follow in the next section.

Figure 1. 

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[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The guide is limited to 56 commercial natural enemy products (nematodes, mites, and insects) and 21 biopesticides that appear to be useful and available from 51 primary sources for use in Florida. These products often are also suitable for use in other states, particularly in the Southeast. Specialized products, such as those used for weed management, and natural enemies produced primarily for other states and Canada have been excluded. Companies not included were most garden centers, those with very limited geographic markets or product lines, suppliers without websites, governmental and other non-commercial producers, so-called big-box stores, and sources for which information was difficult to find or use. Almost half of the companies listed in Table 7 are members of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP). Producers and suppliers belonging to ANBP are preferred because they adhere to a quality assurance policy and code of ethics for the industry, and promote research and education on the use of natural enemies. Additional biological control products and sources can be derived from the internet.

Biological control companies typically provide customer service to help assure that their products are effective. Information they supply includes the availability and cost of natural enemies and biopesticides, descriptions of target pests and their biology, and recommendations for applying and evaluating their products. Product instructions usually indicate the habitats and seasons in which the pests are encountered, developmental stages that are susceptible to parasitism or predation, and relevant behavior of the natural enemies, e.g. how far they move and how many pests they can parasitize or consume. Products often can be used in combination when there is more than one pest problem, and sometimes a product will manage a pest for which it was not intended. The companies only sell biological control products that have been tested thoroughly and receive federal and state approval to assure that they can be released into the environment safely. The products are marketed directly by producers or provided by suppliers after obtaining the necessary permits for natural enemies or EPA registrations for biopesticides.

Customers who use biological control products generally want to be directly involved in solving their pest problems. This involvement is essential because products must first be selected and deployed according to general instructions and subsequently evaluated for site-specific effectiveness. It may be necessary to try different products or application procedures, or to modify the environment in ways that enhance the impact of natural enemies. This may involve changing how plants are grown or adding food, companion plants and refuges for natural enemies. The effects of commercial natural enemies can be limited to the stage that is released or be long-term if they reproduce and become established. Typically, several pests are present and, if some must be managed with pesticides, it is necessary to know which pesticides are compatible with the natural enemies. Other considerations are how to release the natural enemies and in what developmental stage. They can be introduced, for example, on special plants with non-pest hosts, so called “banker plants,” added as eggs, or allowed to fly from release containers. These kinds of considerations may be addressed in instructions from the source companies or gleaned from the references in this guide.

Sources of information on obtaining and using commercial natural enemies and biopesticides

Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP) Website (http://www.anbp.org). [This is a global commercial biological control organization with members primarily in the U.S. and Canada. The website lists 17 producers, 14 distributors, 3 practitioners, 3 contributing members, and 43 associate members. Most of the producers and distributors list their products.]

Copping, L. G. (ed.). 2001. The BioPesticide Manual. British Crop Protection Council. Surrey, UK. 528 p. [This book contains a comprehensive listing and technical descriptions of biopesticides.]

Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) Website (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/) . [The EDIS Website is a comprehensive, single-source repository of all current UF/IFAS numbered peer-reviewed publications. The database is searchable by topic, e.g., agriculture or lawn and garden, and by key words.]

Featured Creatures Website (http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/) . [This is a set of in-depth profiles of insects, nematodes, arachnids, and other organisms. The database is searchable by common name, scientific name, crop or habitat, higher classification, and recent additions.]

Flint, M. L., S. H. Dreistadt, and J. K. Clark. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook. University of California Integrated Pest Management Project. University of California Press, Los Angeles. 154 p. [This book can be used to identify and use many of the most common natural enemies. It contains a considerable amount of information about biological control, including the toxicity to natural enemies of selected insecticides and acaracides.]

Gerson, U., R. L. Smiley, and R. Ochoa. 2003. Mites (Acari) for Pest Control. Wiley-Blackwell. 560 p. [This book describes 34 acarine families that contain mites useful for the control of pest mites, insects, nematodes and weeds. It also contains information on using the mites.]

Hoffman, M. P., and A. C. Frodsham. 1993. Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 63 p. [This book facilitates identification of the major parasites and predators of insect pests of vegetables. It also contains information on entomopathogenic nematodes and microbial insecticides.]

Hunter, C. D. 1997. Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America. California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation. 32 p. (http://www.cdpr.ca.gov). [This book has been the most comprehensive catalogue of commercial biological control products in North America, but the list of producers and suppliers is out of date.]

International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (IBMA) Website (http://www.ibma.ch) . [This is a global commercial biological control organization with members primarily in Europe. The website has an Invertebrate Biocontrol Agents (IBCA) Professional Group for producers of macroorganisms (insects, mites and entomopathogenic nematodes). This group has 54 members.]

The IPM Practitioner. 2001. 23:3-37. (http://www.birc.org/products.pdf). [This publication is a useful reference, but the list of producers and suppliers is out of date.]

IR-4. 2010. Searchable Database for Biopesticide and Organic Pest Management Solutions (http://www.ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/Labeldatabase/index.cfm). [Search categories include commercial crops, commercial turf and ornamentals, residential food crops, residential turf and ornamentals, pest problems (insects, diseases, weeds, nematodes, and animals), plant growth regulators, and states.]

Malais, M. H., and W. J. Ravensberg. 1992. Knowing and Recognizing (Revised Edition). Koppert Biological Systems. Reed Business Information. 288 p. [This book describes major plant pests and their natural enemies. A newer edition is available from Koppert, (http://www.koppert.com/) . This website also has information on the toxicity to natural enemies of selected pesticides.]

Martin, K. W., and D. D. Thomas. 2009. Florida's Major Agricultural Pests. University of Florida, IFAS Extension CD. [This compact disc contains photographs of almost 100 of Florida's major agricultural pests, including adults, larvae, or nymphs and the damage they cause. Information on the CD is available online from IPM Florida (http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu).]

Natural Resources Canada, Insect Producer Database Website (http://www.insect.glfc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/) . [This database contains a listing of insects available from producers.]

Thomson, W. T. 1992. A Worldwide Guide to Beneficial Animals Used for Pest Control Purposes. W. T. Thomson Publishing. Fresno, CA. 92 p. [This book is a practical guide to use of the 72 most common species of commercial beneficial insects, mites, and nematodes for biological pest control. It includes an out-of-date list of companies that sell the natural enemies.]

Acknowledgment

The authors thank Howard Frank (University of Florida) for a very thorough scientific review of the manuscript and John Capinera (University of Florida) for guidance on its structure. Carol Glenister (IPM Laboratories) provided an expert review as a producer and supplier of natural enemies. An excellent review from a Cooperative Extension perspective was contributed by Kris Braman (University of Georgia). This information was assembled in response to many requests by Florida citizens for guidance in purchasing and using commercial natural enemies.

Tables

Table 1. 

Habitats of plant or animal pests in Florida, typical pests, type of commercial natural enemies available to manage each pest, and species reference number.

Habitats of Plant or Animal Pests

Identified Pest

Commercial Natural Enemies

Type

No. ( see Tables 2-6)

Citrus

aphids

predatory insects

21, 26, 28, 30-32

microbial insecticides

63, 66

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

3

microbial insecticides

60, 63, 67

caterpillars

predatory insects

29-32

parasitic wasps

54, 55

microbial insecticides

57, 59, 65, 67

mealybugs

predatory insects

19, 22

parasitic wasps

44

mites

predatory mites

11, 13

scales

predatory insects

22

parasitic wasps

35, 45

thrips

predatory mites

14

predatory insects

28

microbial insecticides

67

whiteflies

predatory insects

20, 28, 30-32

Fruits and Vegetables

aphids

predatory insects

21, 26, 28, 30-32

parasitic wasps

34, 39-41

microbial insecticides

63, 66

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

2

predatory insects

29

parasitic wasps

47

microbial insecticides

60, 61, 63, 67

caterpillars

predatory insects

20, 30-32

parasitic wasps

42, 54-56

microbial insecticides

57, 59, 65, 67

fungus gnats

predatory insects

25

microbial insecticides

58

leafminers

parasitic wasps

43, 46

microbial insecticides

67

mealybugs

predatory insects

19, 22

mites

predatory mites

10-13, 15, 16, 18

predatory insects

27, 33

scales

predatory insects

22, 23

thrips

predatory mites

11, 12

predatory insects

25, 28, 30-32

microbial insecticides

67

whiteflies

predatory mites

14

predatory insects

20, 28, 30-32

Ornamental Plants and Landscapes

aphids

predatory insects

21, 26, 28, 30-32

parasitic wasps

34, 39-41

microbial insecticides

63, 66, 67

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

1-3, 8

predatory insects

29-32

microbial insecticides

60, 61, 63, 67

caterpillars

parasitic wasps

54, 56

microbial insecticides

57, 59, 65, 67

fungus gnats

parasitic nematodes

5, 8

predatory mites

9

predatory insects

25

microbial insecticides

58

leafminers

parasitic nematodes

5

parasitic wasps

43, 46

microbial insecticides

67

mealybugs

parasitic nematodes

1

predatory insects

19, 22

parasitic wasps

45

mites

predatory mites

10-13, 16-18

predatory insects

27

scales

predatory insects

22, 23

thrips

parasitic nematodes

5, 8, 9

predatory mites

11, 12, 14

predatory insects

25, 28, 30-32

microbial insecticides

67

whiteflies

predatory mites

14

predatory insects

20, 28, 30-32

Greenhouses and Interiorscapes

aphids

predatory insects

21, 26

parasitic wasps

34, 36, 39-41

microbial insecticides

63, 66, 68

caterpillars

parasitic wasps

54

microbial insecticides

57, 59, 65, 67

fungus gnats

parasitic nematodes

4

predatory mites

9

predatory insects

25

microbial insecticides

58

leafminers

parasitic wasps

43, 46

microbial insecticides

67

mealybugs

predatory insects

19

parasitic wasps

44

mites

predatory mites

10, 11, 13, 16-18

predatory insects

27

scales

predatory insects

23

parasitic wasps

35, 45

thrips

predatory mites

9, 11

predatory insects

25

microbial insecticides

67

whiteflies

predatory insects

20

parasitic wasps

36-38

Turf and Lawns

caterpillars

parasitic nematodes

7

microbial insecticides

57, 59, 65, 67

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

7, 8

microbial insecticides

60, 63, 67

mole crickets

parasitic nematodes

6, 8

Animal Waste

filth flies

predatory insects

24

parasitic wasps

48-53

Table 2. 

Parasitic nematodes. Numbered biological control products (family, genus, and species), some target pests and source companies.

PARASITIC NEMATODES

Heterorhabditidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

1. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora

(cucumber, scarab, Japanese, and flea beetles, thrips, white grubs, corn root worms, Colorado potato beetles, black vine weevils, and root mealybugs, on ornamentals, trees, and shrubs)

ARBICO ∙ Andermatt ∙ Beneficial Insect Company ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ BioLogic ∙ Bioworks ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture

2. Heterorhabditis megidis

(vine weevil larvae on ornamentals, trees, shrubs, and strawberries)

Andermatt ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Syngenta Bioline

3. Heterorhabditis spp.

(vine weevil larvae and other soil borne beetle larvae on ornamentals, trees, and shrubs)

Beneficial Insect Company ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control

Steinernematidae

 

4. Steinernema carpocapsae

(fungus gnats on potted plants)

Andermatt ∙ ARBICO ∙ Becker Underwood ∙ Beneficial Insect Company ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biofac ∙ BioLogic ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Three Trees Farm

5. Steinernema feltiae

(thrips, fungus gnats, and leafminers on ornamentals)

Andermatt ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Becker Underwood ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ BioLogic ∙ Bioworks ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

6. Steinernema scapterisci

(mole crickets in turf and lawns)

Becker Underwood

7. Steinernema spp.

(grubs, caterpillars, and fungus gnats)

Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology

8. Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis spp. mix

(soil borne pests)

Hydro-Gardens ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ North Country

Table 3. 

Predatory mites. Numbered biological control products (family, genus, and species), some target pests and source companies.

PREDATORY MITES

Laelapidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

9. Stratiolaelaps miles (also called Hypoaspis miles and Stratiolaelaps scimitus)

(fungus gnats and thrips on potted plants, bedding plants, and seedlings)

Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Phytoseiidae

 

10. Amblyseius californicus (also called Neoseiulus californicus)

(two-spotted spider, broad and cyclamen mites on ornamentals, vegetables, fruits, and potted plants)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Associates Insectary ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biotactics ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sterling Insectary ∙ Syngenta Bioline

11. Amblyseius cucumeris

(two-spotted spider mites, flower thrips, and tarsonemid mites on all crops)

American Insectaries ∙ Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

12. Amblyseius degenerans (also called Iphiseius degenerans)

(thrips, broad mites, and spider mites on peppers and ornamentals)

Biobest ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products∙ Syngenta Bioline

13. Amblyseius fallacis (also called Neoseiulus fallacies)

(two-spotted spider mites, European red mites, bamboo mites, and citrus red mites on all crops)

Applied Bio-nomics ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biotactics ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture

14. Amblyseius swirskii

(whiteflies and thrips on ornamentals)

Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Syngenta Bioline

15. Galendromus helveolus

(persea mites on avocado)

American Insectaries ∙ Rincon-Vitova

(currently not produced)

16. Galendromus occidentalis

(spider, eriophyid, and russet mites on ornamentals and vegetables in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biotactics ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest ControlsRincon-Vitova ∙ Sterling Insectary

17. Mesoseiulus longipes (also called Phytoseiulus longipes)

(two-spotted spider mites in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biotactics ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Rincon-Vitova

18. Phytoseiulus persimilis

(spider mites on all crops)

American Insectaries ∙ Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biotactics ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Table 4. 

Predatory insects. Numbered biological control products (family, genus and species), some target pests and source companies.

PREDATORY INSECTS

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

19. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mealybug destroyer

(mealybugs on citrus, ornamentals, and vegetables, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Associates Insectary ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Sterling Insectary ∙ Syngenta Bioline

20. Delphastus catalinae Whitefly predator

(greenhouse, banded-winged, sweetpotato, woolly, azalea, hibiscus, cloudywinged, citrus and rhododendron whiteflies on ornamentals, vegetables, fruit, and citrus, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture

21. Hippodamia convergens Ladybeetle

(aphids, scales, and thrips in citrus, ornamentals, fruits and vegetables, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

A-1 Unique ∙ American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biofac ∙ BioLogic ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Kunafin ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Three Trees Farm

22. Rhyzobius lophanthae (also called Lindorus lophanthae)

(hard and soft scales and mealybugs on ornamentals, vegetables, citrus, and fruit)

Biocontrol Network ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Cybocephalidae

 

23. Cybocephalus nipponicus Scale picnic beetle (euonymus and San Jose scale on ornamentals, vegetables, and fruits, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs

Histeridae

 

24. Carcinops pumilio

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

IPM Labs

Staphylinidae

 

25. Dalotia coriaria (also called Atheta coriaria)

(fungus gnats, shore flies, and thrips in vegetables and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Applied Bio-nomics ∙ Biobest ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Diptera

Cecidomyiidae

 

26. Aphidoletes aphidimyza

(aphids in citrus, ornamentals, fruits and vegetables, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

27. Feltiella acarisuga

(spider mites in ornamentals and vegetables, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Hemiptera

Anthocoridae

 

28. Orius insidiosus Minute pirate bug

(thrips, aphids, and whiteflies on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

ARBICO ∙ Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Pentatomidae

 

29. Podisus maculiventris Spined soldier bug

(Colorado potato beetles and caterpillars on ornamentals, vegetables and citrus)

ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Neuroptera

Chrysopidae

 

30. Chrysoperla carnea Lacewing

(aphids and any other small soft-bodied insects on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus)

A-1 Unique ∙ American Insectaries ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

31. Chrysoperla rufilabris Lacewing

(aphids and any other small soft-bodied insects on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus)

A-1 Unique ∙ American Insectaries ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Three Trees Farm

32. Chrysoperla spp. Lacewing

(aphids and any other small soft-bodied insects on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus)

ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biofac ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Kunafin ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

 

33. Scolothrips sexmaculatus

(spider mites on fruit trees)

Sterling Insectary

Table 5. 

Parasitic wasps. Numbered biological control products (family, genus and species), some target pests and source companies.

PARASITIC WASPS

Hymenoptera

Aphelinidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

34. Aphelinus abdominalis

(potato aphids on ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables, and in greenhouses)

BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

35. Aphytis melinus

(oleander, California citrus, red, yellow, and dictyospermum scales on citrus and in greenhouses)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Associates Insectary ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sespe Creek

36. Encarsia formosa

(whiteflies in greenhouses)

American Insectaries ∙ Applied Bio-nomics ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

37. Eretmocerus eremicus

(sweetpotato whiteflies, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

38. Eretmocerus mundus

(sweetpotato and tobacco whiteflies in greenhouses)

Biobest ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Braconidae

 

39. Aphidius colemani

(cotton, melon, green peach and other aphids on vegetables, fruits and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

40. Aphidius ervi

(potato, pea, green peach, and greenhouse potato aphids on vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Syngenta Bioline

41. Aphidius matricariae

(green peach aphids on vegetables, fruits, and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Applied Bio-nomics ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ Evergreen ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Nature's Control ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture

42. Cotesia plutellae

(diamondback moths on vegetables)

ARBICO ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova

43. Dacnusa sibirica

(leafminers in vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, and in greenhouse and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

Encyrtidae

 

44. Leptomastix dactylopii

(citrus mealybugs on citrus and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova

45. Metaphycus spp.

(black, hemispherical, brown, and nigra scale in citrus, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

BCP Certis ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Natural Insect Control

Eulophidae

 

46. Diglyphus isaea

(vegetable, tomato, serpentine, and chrysanthemum leafminers on vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ BCP Certis ∙ Biobest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Plant Products ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

47. Pediobius foveolatus

(Mexican bean beetle on vegetables)

ARBICO ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Pteromalidae

 

48. Muscidifurax raptor

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

A-1 Unique ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ Biofac ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Natural Insect Control

49. Muscidifurax raptorellus

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Beneficial Insectary ∙ The Green Spot ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Spalding Laboratories

50. Muscidifurax zaraptor

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Beneficial Insectary ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ The Green Spot ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Sound Horticulture ∙ Spalding Laboratories

51. Nasonia vitripennis

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Buglogical Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls

52. Spalangia cameroni

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Beneficial Insectary ∙ IPM Labs ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Spalding Laboratories

53. Spalangia endius

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

A-1 Unique ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ Kunafin (Spalangia spp.) ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Spalding Laboratories

Trichogrammatidae

 

54. Trichogramma brassicae

(caterpillars in vegetables, fruit, ornamentals, and citrus, and in greenhouse and interiorscapes)

BCP Certis ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ EcoSolutions ∙ The Green Spot ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Kunafin (Trichogramma spp.) ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Syngenta Bioline

55. Trichogramma minutum

(caterpillars in Eastern U.S. orchards)

A-1 Unique ∙ American Insectaries ∙ ARBICO ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ International Technology ∙ IPM Labs ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova

56. Trichogramma pretiosum

(moth eggs in vegetables, field crops, and ornamentals)

A-1 Unique ∙ American Insectaries ∙ Beneficial Insectary ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Biofac ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ International Technology ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Table 6. 

Biopesticides. Microbial insecticides, nematicides and fungicides along with selected source companies (genus and species, product names, and some target pests).

BIOPESTICIDES

Microbial Insecticides

Source Company (see Table 7)

57. Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (BTA)

Xentari, Florbac, Agree, Design, Ketch (caterpillars)

BioBest ∙ Certis ∙ International Technology ∙ Valent BioSciences

58. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (BTI)

Skeetal, Mosquito Dunks, Bactimos, Gnatrol, Aquabac, Vetobac, Teknar (mosquitoes, blackfly larvae, and fungus gnats)

ARBICO ∙ Beneficial Insect Company ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Bonide ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ Gardener's Supply ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ International Technology ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ North Country ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Valent BioSciences

59. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (BTK)

Thuricide, Dipel, Crymax, Foray, BioBit, Scutello, Crymax WDG, Deliver, Javelin, Baritone (caterpillars)

AgraQuest ∙ BCP Certis ∙ BioBest ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Bonide ∙ Certis ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ North Country ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Valent BioSciences

60. Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis (BTT)

Novodor, Raven, Potato Shield, Foil (beetle larvae)

Valent BioSciences

61. Bacillus popilliae

Milky Spore (Japanese beetles)

ARBICO ∙ Beneficial Insect Company ∙ Biocontrol Network ∙ Eartheasy ∙ Gardener's Supply ∙ The Green Spot ∙ North Country ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ St. Gabriel

62. Bacillus sphaericus

VectoLex, Spherimos (mosquito larvae)

Valent BioSciences

63. Beauveria bassiana

Naturalis-O, L and T, Mycotrol, Botanigard (aphids, grubs, chinch bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, and sod webworms)

ARBICO ∙ Bioworks ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Rincon-Vitova ∙ Troy

64. Nosema locustae

Nolo Bait, Semispore Bait (grasshoppers)

Biocontrol Network ∙ Buglogical Control ∙ Gardener's Supply ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony Farm Supply ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ M & R Durango ∙ Natural Insect Control ∙ Natural Pest Controls ∙ North Country ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural ∙ Rincon-Vitova

65. Nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV)

Gem-Star, NPV, Spod-X (caterpillars)

Certis ∙ Rincon-Vitova

66. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus

PreFeRal, PFR-97 (aphids)

Certis ∙ International Technology

67. Saccharopolyspora spinosa

Entrust (caterpillars, beetle larvae, thrips, and leafminers)

ARBICO ∙ The Green Spot ∙ International Technology

68. Verticillium lecanii

Vertalec (aphids in greenhouses)

Koppert

Microbial Nematicides

 

69. Myrothecium verrucaria

DiTera (nematodes)

Valent BioSciences

Microbial Fungicides

 

70. Agrobacterium radiobacter

Galltrol-A, Gallex, NoGall K1026 (crown gall)

AgBioChem

71. Bacillus pumilis

Activate, Ballad Plus, Sonata (fungal diseases)

AgraQuest ∙ Rincon-Vitova

72. Bacillus subtilis

Serenade, Cease (fungal and bacterial diseases)

AgraQuest ∙ Bioworks ∙ Harmony ∙ International Technology ∙ Rincon-Vitova

73. Gliocladium virens

SoilGard, Gliomix (Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium)

Certis ∙ Harmony ∙ International Technology ∙ Rincon-Vitova

74. Pseudomonas fluorescens

Blight Ban (fire blight)

Peaceful Valley

75. Reynoutria sachalinensis

Regalia (fungal and bacterial diseases including bacterial spot, citrus canker, powdery and downy mildews)

Marrone Bio Innovations

76. Streptomyces spp.

Mycostop, RootGuard, Agrimycin, Actinovate (Fusarium, damping off, Pythium, Phytophthora and fire blight)

The Green Spot ∙ Harmony ∙ Hydro-Gardens ∙ International Technology ∙ Peaceful Valley ∙ Planet Natural

77. Trichoderma spp.

Plant Shield, Plant Gard, Binab-T, Root Shield (Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Cylindrocladium and Thielaviopsis)

ARBICO ∙ Binab ∙ Bioworks ∙ Gardens Alive ∙ The Green Spot ∙ Harmony ∙ International Technology ∙ Koppert ∙ Rincon-Vitova

Table 7. 

Commercial biological control companies that market nematodes, mites, insects, and biopesticides for pest management in Florida.

Company

Website

A-1 Unique Insect Control

http://www.a-1unique.com

AgBioChem

http://www.agbiochem.com

American Insectaries

http://www.betterbugs.com

Andermatt Biocontrol

http://www.biocontrol.ch

Applied Bio-nomics*

http://www.appliedbio-nomics.com

ARBICO Organics*

http://www.arbico-organics.com

Associates Insectary*

http://www.associatesinsectary.com

BCP Certis

http://www.bcpcertis.com

Becker Underwood*

http://www.beckerunderwood.com/en/home

Beneficial Insectary*

http://www.insectary.com

Beneficial Insect Company

http://www.thebeneficialinsectco.com

Binab

http://www.algonet.se/~binab/index2.html

Biobest*

http://www.biobest.ca

Biocontrol Network

http://www.biconet.com

Biofac Crop Care

http://www.biofac.com $500 minimum order

BioLogic Company

http://www.biologicco.com

Biotactics

http://www.benemite.com

Bioworks

http://www.bioworksinc.com

Bonide

http://www.bonideproducts.com

Buglogical Control Systems

http://www.buglogical.com

Certis

http://www.certisusa.com

Eartheasy

http://www.eartheasy.com

EcoSolutions*

http://www.anbp.org/incex.php/members-products [09/2011]

Evergreen Growers Supply*

http://www.evergreengrowers.com

Gardener's Supply

http://www.gardeners.com

Gardens Alive

http://www.gardensalive.com

The Green Spot*

http://greenmethods.com

Harmony Farm Supply

http://harmonyfarm.com

Hydro-Gardens*

http://www.hydro-gardens.com

International Technology

http://www.itssupply.com

IPM Laboratories*

http://www.ipmlabs.com

Koppert Biological Systems*

http://www.koppert.com

Kunafin*

http://www.kunafin.com

M & R Durango*

http://goodbug.com

Marrone Bio Innovations*

http://marronebioinnovations.com

Natural Insect Control*

http://www.natural-insect-control.com

Natural Pest Controls

http://www.natural-pest-controls.com

Nature's Control

http://www.naturescontrol.com

North Country Organics

http://www.norganics.com

Peaceful Valley

http://www.groworganic.com

Planet Natural

http://www.planetnatural.com

Plant Products Company*

http://www.plantprod.com

Rincon-Vitova*

http://www.rinconvitova.com

Sespe Creek*

http://www.anbp.org.index.php/members-products [09/2011]

Sound Horticulture*

http://soundhorticulture.com

Spalding Laboratories*

https://www.spalding-labs.com

Sterling Insectary*

http://www.sterlinginsectary.com

Syngenta Bioline*

http://www.syngenta-bioline.co.uk

Three Trees Farm

http://www.redwiggler.com

Troy Biosciences

http://www.troybiosciences.com

Valent BioSciences

http://www.valentbiosciences.com

*Members of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (http://www.anbp.org)

Footnotes

1.

This document is IPM-146 (IN849), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date July 1, 2010. Revised June 2011. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Norman C. Leppla, professor, and Kenneth L. Johnson II, USDA, NIFA, National Needs Fellow, IPM Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.