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Publication #IPM-146

Guidelines for Purchasing and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides in North America1

Lynn M. LeBeck and Norman C. Leppla 2

This guide provides assistance in selecting, purchasing, and using commercially available natural enemies and biopesticides for managing accurately diagnosed pest problems. It therefore applies only to situations in which the cause of a pest problem is known and a biological control solution is sought. To choose a commercial natural enemy product, first use Table 1 to locate the habitat of your plant or animal pest and identify the insect or mite. Then, consider using some of the listed types of natural enemies (parasitic nematodes, predatory mites, predatory insects, and parasitic wasps) and biopesticides available to manage these pests. Products often can be used in combination when there is more than one pest problem, and sometimes a product will manage a pest for which it was not intended. The reference numbers correspond with the numbered scientific names of natural enemy and biopesticide products in Tables 2–6. Table 6 provides scientific and product names for some of the most common microbial insecticides, nematicides and fungicides that can be used to manage the indicated types of pests alone or, if compatible, in combination with insect and mite natural enemies. Biopesticides included in Table 6, but not referenced in Table 1, are an insecticide for mosquito larvae (#76), another for grasshoppers (#78), products for nematodes that damage plants (#83 and #84), and eight microbial fungicides (#85–92). The biological control companies named in Tables 2–6 are listed in Table 7, along with their websites. Sources of information on obtaining and using commercial natural enemies follow in the next section.

Biological control companies typically provide customer service to assure that their products are used appropriately. Information they supply includes the availability and cost of natural enemies and biopesticides, descriptions of target pests and their biology, and recommendations for applying and evaluating their products. Product instructions usually indicate the habitats and seasons in which the pests are encountered, developmental stages that are susceptible to parasitism or predation, and relevant behavior of the natural enemies, e.g., how far they move and how many pests they can parasitize or consume. Companies included in the detailed species lists (Tables 2–5), are members of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP). Producers and distributors belonging to ANBP are preferred because they adhere to a quality assurance policy and code of ethics for the industry and promote research and education on the use of natural enemies. Sources not listed are most garden centers, companies with very limited geographic markets or product lines, suppliers without websites, governmental and other non-commercial producers, so-called big-box stores, and outlets for which information was difficult to find or use.

An easy-to-use guide is available to help customers assess the quality of natural enemies received from suppliers, “Grower Guide: Quality Assurance of Biocontrol Products” (see Sources of Information). It is essential to determine that the purchased living organisms are healthy and able to survive long enough to provide biological control in the pest habitat. Suppliers try to provide high-quality natural enemy products but are unable to control conditions during shipment and handling. Temperature extremes, condensation from ice packs, restricted oxygen supply, high organism densities, and long shipping and storage times are some of the factors that can adversely affect natural enemy quality. Therefore, customers should open packages immediately on arrival to provide a better environment for the organisms and detect any potential problems. At least, packages should be inspected for condensation or a fermenting smell, and the number of living and dead organisms should be estimated. If pupae or parasitized host organisms are shipped, the number of emerging adults should be recorded; a sex ratio of at least 40–45% females is expected. Customers are advised to make sure that most eggs hatch or adults are able to move, if products are shipped in these stages of development. Notes should be made on the product name, company batch number, date received, packaging type and condition, number of organisms in the package, and any other pertinent observations on the appearance and performance of the product. After completing the general check, customers can perform additional quality assurance testing, recording the test methods, number of organisms tested and date, or use the products as soon as possible. The supplier should be notified immediately if there is a problem with the products.

Customers who use biological control products generally want to be directly involved in solving their pest problems. This involvement is essential because products must first be selected and deployed according to general instructions and subsequently evaluated for site-specific effectiveness. It may be necessary to try different products or application procedures, or to modify the environment in ways that enhance the impact of natural enemies. This may involve changing how plants are grown or adding food, companion plants and refuges for natural enemies. The impacts of commercial natural enemies can be limited to the stage that is released or be long-term if they reproduce and become established. Typically, several pests are present and, if some must be managed with pesticides, it is necessary to know which pesticides are compatible with the natural enemies. Other considerations are how to release the natural enemies and in what developmental stages. They can be introduced, for example, on special plants with non-pest hosts, so called “banker plants,” added as eggs, or allowed to fly from release containers. These kinds of considerations may be addressed in instructions from the source companies or gleaned from the references in this guide.

Commercial biological control products described in this guide have been thoroughly tested and given federal and state approval to assure that they can be released into the environment safely. The products are marketed directly by producers or provided by suppliers after obtaining the necessary shipping permits for natural enemies or EPA registrations for biopesticides. Only products (nematodes, mites, and insects) that are insectary-reared, as opposed to field collected (e.g., lady beetles), and biopesticides that appear to be useful and available in North America are included. The guide will be updated periodically because products may be discontinued and new ones become available. Companies with ANBP membership will be contacted directly for their updated information. Specialized products, such as those used for weed management, have been excluded from the guide. More biological control products and sources can be derived from the internet and additional companies that sell natural enemies are listed in the last table.

Sources of Information on Obtaining and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides

Appropriate Technology Transfer for Rural Areas (ATTRA), National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (https://www.ncat.org) [This service provides searchable databases for sustainable agriculture, including biological control.]

Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP) Website (http://www.anbp.org). [This is a global commercial biological control organization with members primarily in North America. The website lists producers, distributors, practitioners, and contributing members. Most of the producers and distributors list their products.]

Buitenhuis, R. 2014. Grower Guide: Quality Assurance of Biocontrol Products. Vineland Research and Innovation Centre, Ontario, Canada (http://www.vinelandresearch.com/sites/default/files/grower_guide_pdf_final.pdf)

Copping, L. G. (ed.). 2001. The BioPesticide Manual. British Crop Protection Council. Surrey, UK. 528 p. [This book contains a comprehensive listing and technical descriptions of biopesticides.]

Electronic Data Information Source (EDIS) Website (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/). [The EDIS Web site is a comprehensive, single-source repository of all current UF/IFAS numbered peer-reviewed publications. The database is searchable by topic, e.g., agriculture or lawn and garden, and by key words.]

Featured Creatures Website (http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/). [This is a set of in-depth profiles of insects, nematodes, arachnids and other organisms. The database is searchable by common name, scientific name, crop or habitat, higher classification and recent additions.]

Flint, M. L., S. H. Dreistadt and J. K. Clark. 1998. Natural Enemies Handbook. University of California Integrated Pest Management Project. University of California Press, Los Angeles. 154 p. [This book can be used to identify and use many of the most common natural enemies. It contains a considerable amount of information about biological control, including the toxicity to natural enemies of selected insecticides and acaracides.]

Gerson, U., R. L. Smiley and R. Ochoa. 2003. Mites (Acari) for Pest Control. Wiley-Blackwell. 560 p. [This book describes 34 acarine families that contain mites useful for the control of pest mites, insects, nematodes and weeds. It also contains information on using the mites.]

Hoffman, M. P. and A. C. Frodsham. 1993. Natural Enemies of Vegetable Insect Pests. Cornell Cooperative Extension, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 63 p. [This book facilitates identification of the major parasites and predators of insect pests of vegetables. It also contains information on entomopathogenic nematodes and microbial insecticides.]

International Biocontrol Manufacturers Association (IBMA) Website (http://www.ibma.ch). [This is a global commercial biological control organization with members primarily in Europe. The website has an Invertebrate Biocontrol Agents (IBCA) Professional Group for producers of macroorganisms (insects, mites and entomopathogenic nematodes).

IR-4. 2010. Searchable Database for Biopesticide and Organic Pest Management Solutions (http://www.ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/Labeldatabase/index.cfm). [Search categories include commercial crops, commercial turf and ornamentals, residential food crops, residential turf and ornamenals, pest problems (insects, diseases, weeds, nematodes, and animals), plant growth regulators and states.]

Malais, M. H. and W. J. Ravensberg. 1992. Knowing and Recognizing (Revised Edition). Koppert Biological Systems. Reed Business Information. 288 p. [This book describes major plant pests and their natural enemies. A newer edition is available from Koppert, (http://www.koppert.com/). This website also has information on the toxicity to natural enemies of selected pesticides.]

Natural Resources Canada, Insect Producer Database Website (http://www.insect.glfc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/). [This database contains a listing of insects available from producers.]

The IPM Practitioner’s 2015 Directory of Least-Toxic Pest Control Products (http://www.birc.org/Final2015Directory.pdf). [This publication contains more than 2000 products from more than 600 suppliers.]

Thomson, W. T. 1992. A Worldwide Guide to Beneficial Animals used for Pest Control Purposes. W. T. Thomson Publishing. Fresno, CA. 92 p. [This book is a practical guide to use of the 72 most common species of commercial beneficial insects, mites and nematodes for biological pest control. It includes an out of date list of companies that sell the natural enemies.]

Acknowledgment

The authors thank Dr. Marshall W. Johnson (University of California, Riverside) for a thorough review of the manuscript and Dr. John L. Capinera (University of Florida) for guidance on its structure. Carol S. Glenister (IPM Laboratories) provided an expert review as a producer and supplier of natural enemies. The guide also was reviewed by the Board of Directors of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers. This guide was developed in response to requests for assistance in purchasing and using commercial natural enemies.

Tables

Table 1. 

Habitats of plant or animal pests in North America, typical pests, type of commercial natural enemies available to manage each pest, and species reference number.

Habitats of Plant or Animal Pests

Identified Pest

Commercial Natural Enemies

Type

No. ( see Tables 2–6)

Citrus

aphids

predatory insects

30, 32, 36–38, 40

microbial insecticides

77, 80

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

3, 8

microbial insecticides

74, 77, 81

caterpillars

predatory insects

35–38, 40

parasitic wasps

66, 67

microbial insecticides

71, 73, 79, 81

mealybugs

predatory insects

23, 25, 40

parasitic wasps

54

mites

predatory mites

18, 19

scales

predatory insects

25

parasitic wasps

43, 55

thrips

predatory mites

16

predatory insects

32, 40

microbial insecticides

81

whiteflies

predatory insects

24, 32, 36–38, 40

Fruits, Vegetables, and Tree Crops

aphids

predatory insects

30, 32, 33, 36–38, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

42, 47–49

microbial insecticides

77, 80

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

2

predatory insects

35

parasitic wasps

57

microbial insecticides

74, 75, 77, 81

caterpillars

predatory insects

24, 32, 36–38, 40

parasitic wasps

50, 51, 66, 67, 70

microbial insecticides

71, 73, 79, 81

fungus gnats

predatory insects

12, 29

microbial insecticides

72

leafminers

parasitic wasps

52, 56

microbial insecticides

81

mealybugs

predatory insects

23, 25, 39, 40, 54

mites

predatory mites

17–20, 22

predatory insects

31, 41

scales

predatory insects

25, 27

thrips

predatory mites

12, 15, 18

predatory insects

29, 32, 40, 36–38

microbial insecticides

81

whiteflies

predatory mites

16

predatory insects

23, 32–34, 36–38, 39, 40

 

psyllids (tomato/potato psyllid)

parasitic wasps

58

 

Lygus bugs

(strawberries)

parasitic wasps

53

 

root-knot nematode (greenhouse tomatoes)

parasitic nematodes

6

Ornamental Plants and Landscapes

aphids

predatory insects

30, 32, 33, 36–38, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

42, 47–49

microbial insecticides

77, 80, 81

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

1–3, 7, 11

predatory insects

35–38

microbial insecticides

74, 75, 77, 81

caterpillars

predatory insects

24, 32, 36-38, 40

parasitic wasps

66, 70

microbial insecticides

71, 73, 79, 81

fungus gnats

parasitic nematodes

5, 11

predatory mites

12, 13

predatory insects

25, 29

microbial insecticides

72

leafminers

parasitic nematodes

5

parasitic wasps

52, 56

microbial insecticides

81

mealybugs

parasitic nematodes

1

predatory insects

23, 25, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

55

mites

predatory mites

17–22

predatory insects

31

scales

predatory insects

25, 27

thrips

parasitic nematodes

5, 11

predatory mites

12, 13, 15, 16, 18

predatory insects

29, 32, 36–38, 40

microbial insecticides

81

whiteflies

predatory mites

16

predatory insects

24, 32, 34, 36–39, 40

Greenhouses and Interiorscapes

aphids

predatory insects

30, 33, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

42, 44, 47–49

microbial insecticides

77, 80, 82

caterpillars (eggs)

predatory insects

24, 32, 35–38, 40

parasitic wasps

66

microbial insecticides

71, 73, 79, 81

fungus gnats

parasitic nematodes

4

predatory mites

13

predatory insects

29

microbial insecticides

72

leafminers

parasitic wasps

52, 56

microbial insecticides

81

mealybugs

predatory insects

23, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

55, 56

mites

predatory mites

17–22

predatory insects

31

scales

predatory insects

27

parasitic wasps

43, 55

thrips

predatory mites

13, 18

predatory insects

29

microbial insecticides

81

whiteflies

predatory insects

24, 33, 34, 39, 40

parasitic wasps

44–46

Turf and Lawns

caterpillars

parasitic nematodes

9

microbial insecticides

71, 73, 79, 81

beetles (grubs)

parasitic nematodes

9, 11

microbial insecticides

74, 77, 81

mole crickets

parasitic nematodes

8, 11

Animal Waste

filth flies

predatory insects

28

parasitic wasps

59–66

       
       
Table 2. 

Parasitic nematodes. Numbered biological control products [family, genus and species], some target pests, and source companies.

Parasitic Nematodes

Heterorhabditidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

1. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (cucumber, scarab, Japanese and flea beetles, thrips, white grubs, corn root worms, Colorado potato beetles, black vine weevils, and root mealybugs, on ornamentals, trees and shrubs)

Crop Defenders ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Green Methods ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ BASF ▪ ARBICO ▪ BioWorks ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Sierra Biological ▪ Bio Control Solution ▪ Biobest ▪ Koppert ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Entomology Solutions

2. Heterorhabditis megidis (vine weevil larvae on ornamentals, trees, shrubs and strawberries)

Natural Insect Control ▪ Bio Control Solution ▪ Koppert

3. Heterorhabditis spp. (vine weevil larvae and other soil borne beetle larvae on ornamentals, trees and shrubs)

Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ M&R Durango ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Green Methods ▪ Koppert

Steinernematidae

 

4. Steinernema carpocapsae (fungus gnats on potted plants)

Sierra Biological ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ BASF ▪ Koppert ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Green Methods ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ ARBICO ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Biobest ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply

5. Steinernema feltiae (thrips, fungus gnats and leafminers on ornamentals)

Green Methods ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Sierra Biological ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ BioWorks ▪ Koppert ▪ ARBICO ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Biobest ▪ Bio Control Solution ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ BASF ▪ Orcon ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply

6. Steinernema feltiae MG-13 (root-knot nematodes on greenhouse tomatoes)

Sierra Biological

7. Steinernema kraussei (black vine weevil)

Biobest ▪ ARBICO ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ BASF

8. Steinernema riobrave (mole crickets, root weevils on citrus)

Sierra Biological ▪ Sound Horticulture

9. Steinernema spp. (grubs, caterpillars, and fungus gnats)

Green Methods ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Beneficial Insectary

Other Nematode Mixes

 

10. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema carpocapsae (soil borne pests)

Sierra Biological ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Sound Horticulture

11. Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis spp. mix (soil borne pests)

Hydro-Gardens ▪ ARBICO ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Natural Insect Control

Table 3. 

Predatory mites. Numbered biological control products [family, genus and species], some target pests, and source companies.

Predatory Mites

Laelapidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

12. Gaeolaelaps gillespieii (fungus gnats, thrips)

Crop Defenders ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Applied Bio-nomics

13. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (also called Hypoaspis or Stratiolaelaps miles) (fungus gnats and thrips on potted plants, bedding plants, and seedlings)

Sound Horticulture ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Green Methods ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Biobest ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Koppert ▪ ARBICO ▪ Bio Control, S.A.

Phytoseiidae

 

14. Amblyseius andersoni (spider, russet, rust and broad mite)

IPM Laboratories ▪ Green Methods ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ ARBICO ▪ Biobest ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Beneficial Insectary

15. Amblyseius degenerans (also called Iphiseius degenerans) (thrips, broad' and spider mites on peppers and ornamentals)

Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Biobest ▪ Crop Defenders

16. Amblyseius swirskii (whiteflies and thrips on vegetables, melons, and ornamentals)

Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Biobest ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ BioWorks ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Koppert ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Sound Horticulture

17. Neoseiulus californicus (formerly called Amblyseius californicus) (two-spotted spider, broad and cyclamen mites on ornamentals, vegetables, fruit, and potted plants)

Associates Insectary ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Koppert ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ ARBICO ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Biobest ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Green Methods ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Orcon

18. Neoseiulus cucumeris (formerly called Amblyseius cucumeris) (two-spotted spider mite and tarsonemid mites, and flower thrips on all crops)

Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Koppert ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ M&R Durango ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Biobest ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ ARBICO ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Green Methods ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Orcon

19. Neoseiulus fallacis (formerly called Amblyseius fallacis) (two-spotted spider, European red, and citrus red mites on many crops)

EcoSolutions ▪ ARBICO ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Biobest ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Natural Insect Control

20. Galendromus occidentalis (spider, eriophyid, and russet mites on ornamentals and vegetables in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

IPM Laboratories ▪ ARBICO ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Biobest ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Sound Horticulture

21. Mesoseiulus longipes (also called Phytoseiulus longipes) (two spotted spider mites in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

M&R Durango ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ ARBICO ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control

22. Phytoseiulus persimilis (spider mites on many crops)

Entomology Solutions ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Green Methods ▪ GrowLiv ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Koppert ▪ Biobest ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Orcon ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ ARBICO ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Natural Insect Control

Table 4. 

Predatory insects. Numbered biological control products [family, genus and species], some target pests. and source companies.

Predatory Insects

Coleoptera

Coccinellidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

23. Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mealybug destroyer (mealybugs on citrus, ornamentals, and vegetables, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

IPM Laboratories ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Associates Insectary ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Foothill Agricultural Research ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Biobest ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Green Methods ▪ Koppert ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Orcon ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ ARBICO

24. Delphastus catalinae Whitefly predator (greenhouse, banded-winged, sweetpotato, woolly, azalea, hibiscus, cloudywinged, citrus, and rhododendron whiteflies on ornamentals, vegetables, fruit, and citrus, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Orcon ▪ Biobest ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Koppert ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ ARBICO ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ IPM Laboratories

25. Rhyzobius lophanthae (also called Lindorus lophanthae) (hard and soft scales and mealybugs on ornamentals, vegetables, citrus and fruit)

Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Green Methods ▪ ARBICO ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ EcoSolutions

26. Stethorus punctillum (two-spotted spider mites)

Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ ARBICO ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Green Methods ▪ Rincon-Vitova

Cybocephalidae

 

27. Cybocephalus nipponicus Scale picnic beetle (euonymus and San Jose scale on ornamentals, vegetables, and fruit, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Rincon-Vitova ▪ Beneficial Insectary

Histeridae

 

28. Carcinops pumilio (flies in manure)

Beneficial Insectary ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ IPM Laboratories

Staphylinidae

 

29. Dalotia coriaria (also called Atheta coriaria) (fungus gnats, shore flies and thrips in vegetables and ornamentals, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

ARBICO ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Biobest ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Green Methods ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Anatis Bioprotection

Diptera

Cecidomyiidae

 

30. Aphidoletes aphidimyza (aphids in citrus, ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Natural Enemies ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Biobest ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Orcon ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Koppert

31. Feltiella acarisuga (spider mites in ornamentals and vegetables, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Rincon-Vitova ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Koppert ▪ ARBICO ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Biobest ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Natural Insect Control

Hemiptera

Anthocoridae

 

32. Orius insidiosus Minute pirate bug (thrips, aphids, and whiteflies on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Koppert ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ GrowLiv ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Biobest ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Green Methods ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ ARBICO ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Entomology Solutions

Reduviidae

 

33. Zelus renardii Assassin bug (generalist predator)

ARBICO

Miridae

 

34. Dicyphus hesperus (greenhouse and tobacco whiteflies

Biobest ▪ GrowLiv

Pentatomidae

 

35. Podisus maculiventris Spined soldier bug (Colorado potato beetles and caterpillars on ornamentals, vegetables, and citrus)

ARBICO ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Biobest ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Green Methods ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ IPM Laboratories

Neuroptera

Chrysopidae

 

36. Chrysoperla carnea Green lacewing (aphids and other small soft bodied insects on ornamentals, citrus, fruit, and vegetables)

GrowLiv ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Biobest ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Orcon ▪ Koppert

37. Chrysoperla rufilabris Green lacewing (aphids and other small soft bodied insects on ornamentals, citrus, fruit, and vegetables)

ARBICO ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Green Methods ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary

38. Chrysoperla spp. Lacewing (aphids and other small soft bodied insects on ornamentals, citrus, fruit, and vegetables)

Anatis Bioprotection ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ ARBICO ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Green Methods ▪ Kunafin ▪ Natural Insect Control

Hemerobiidae

 

39. Micromus variegatus Brown lacewing

(aphids, whiteflies, and mealybugs on vegetables and ornamentals)

Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Anatis Bioprotection

40. Sympherobius barberi Brown lacewing (mealybugs, psyllids, thrips, mites, whiteflies, aphids, small caterpillars, leafhoppers, and insect eggs on grapes, citrus, tree crops, and greenhouse crops)

Foothill Agricultural Research ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ ARBICO ▪ Rincon-Vitova

Thysanoptera

Thripidae

 

41. Scolothrips sexmaculatus (spider mites on fruit trees)

ARBICO

Table 5. 

Parasitic wasps. Numbered biological control products [family, genus and species], some target pests, and source companies.

Parasitic wasps

Hymenoptera

Aphelinidae

Source Company (see Table 7)

42. Aphelinus abdominalis (potato aphids on ornamentals, fruits, and vegetables, including greenhouses)

ARBICO ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Koppert ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Green Methods ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Biobest

43. Aphytis melinus (oleander and citrus scales, including greenhouses)

Hydro-Gardens ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Koppert ▪ EcoSolutions ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Orcon ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Foothill Agricultural Research ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ ARBICO ▪ Associates Insectary ▪ Green Methods ▪ Sespe Creek Insectary

44. Encarsia formosa (whiteflies in greenhouses)

Koppert ▪ Biobest ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Orcon ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Green Methods ▪ ARBICO ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Applied Bio-nomics ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Syngenta Bioline

45. Eretmocerus eremicus

(sweetpotato whiteflies, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

GrowLiv ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Biobest ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Koppert ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Everwood Farm

46. Eretmocerus mundus

(sweetpotato and tobacco whiteflies in greenhouses)

Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Koppert ▪ Natural Insect Control

Aphidiidae

 

47. Aphidius colemani

(cotton, melon, green peach, and other aphids on vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Sound Horticulture ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Green Methods ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ GrowLiv ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ ARBICO ▪ Koppert ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Biobest ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Crop Defenders

48. Aphidius ervi

(potato, pea, and green peach aphids on vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Green Methods ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ ARBICO ▪ Biobest ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ Koppert ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Bio Control, S.A.

49. Aphidius matricariae

(green peach aphids on vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

M&R Durango ▪ Crop Defenders ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Biobest ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ EcoSolutions

Bethylidae

 

50. Goniozus legneri

(navel orangeworm on almonds)

Rincon-Vitova

Braconidae

 

51. Cotesia vestalis (also known as Cotesia plutellae)

(diamondback moth on cruciferous crops )

ARBICO

52. Dacnusa sibirica

(leafminers on vegetables, fruit and ornamentals, including greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Beneficial Insectary ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Everwood Farm ▪ ARBICO ▪ Koppert ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Rincon-Vitova

53. Peristenus relictus

(Lygus bugs in strawberries)

Rincon-Vitova

Encyrtidae

 

54. Anagyrus pseudococci

(mealybugs on grapes and citrus)

Koppert ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ ARBICO ▪ Foothill Agricultural Research ▪ Associates Insectary ▪ Biobest

55. Metaphycus spp.

(black, brown, and other scales in citrus, including greenhouses, and interiorscapes)

EcoSolutions ▪ Hydro-Gardens

Eulophidae

 

56. Diglyphus isaea

(vegetable, tomato, serpentine, and chrysanthemum leafminers on vegetables, fruit, and ornamentals, and in greenhouses and interiorscapes)

Biobest ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V. ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Koppert ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Green Methods ▪ ARBICO ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Everwood Farm

57. Pediobius foveolatus

(Mexican bean beetle on vegetables)

Entomology Solutions ▪ ARBICO ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Green Methods

58. Tamarixia triozae

(tomato or potato psyllid, on tomato, sweet and hot pepper, and eggplant )

Biobest ▪ Distribuciones IMEX S.A. de C.V.

Pteromalidae

 

59. Muscidifurax raptor

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Beneficial Insectary ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ IPM Laboratories

60. Muscidifurax raptorellus

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ ARBICO ▪ Spalding Laboratories ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Green Methods ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Koppert

61. Muscidifurax zaraptor

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Green Methods ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Spalding Laboratories ▪ ARBICO ▪ M&R Durango

62. Muscidifurax spp.

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Beneficial Insectary ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods

63. Nasonia vitripennis

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

ARBICO ▪ Buglogical Control Systems

64. Spalangia cameroni

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Spalding Laboratories ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Green Methods ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply

65. Spalangia endius

(flies in garbage, manure, and compost)

Kunafin ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Beneficial Insectary

Trichogrammatidae

 

66. Trichogramma brassicae

(caterpillar eggs on vegetables, fruit, citrus, and ornamentals, including greenhouse, and interiorscapes)

Koppert ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Orcon ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Kunafin ▪ ARBICO ▪ Green Methods ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Biobest ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Syngenta Bioline ▪ Buglogical Control Systems

67. Trichogramma minutum

(caterpillar eggs on fruit trees in eastern U.S. orchards)

Buglogical Control Systems ▪ Green Methods ▪ Anatis Bioprotection ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Orcon ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ ARBICO ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Natural Insect Control

68. Trichogramma ostriniae

(European corn borer on corn and peppers, and grape berry moth on grapes)

Natural Insect Control ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Anatis Bioprotection

69. Trichogramma platneri

(caterpillar eggs in fruit trees in western U.S. orchards)

ARBICO ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Entomology Solutions ▪ Rincon-Vitova

70. Trichogramma pretiosum

(moth eggs on vegetables, field crops, and ornamentals)

Koppert ▪ Evergreen Growers Supply ▪ Orcon ▪ Sound Horticulture ▪ Rincon-Vitova ▪ Natural Insect Control ▪ Buglogical Control Systems ▪ IPM Laboratories ▪ Green Methods ▪ M&R Durango ▪ Hydro-Gardens ▪ Beneficial Insectary ▪ Bio Control, S.A. ▪ Tip Top Bio-Control ▪ Entomology Solutions

Table 6. 

Biopesticides. Microbial insecticides, nematicides, and fungicides (genus and species, product names, and some target pests). Check the IR-4 Searchable Database for Biopesticide and Organic Pest Management Solutions to locate companies currently marketing these products (http://ir4.rutgers.edu/Biopesticides/LabelDatabase/index.cfmlinks).

Biopesticides

Microbial Insecticides

71. Bacillus thuringiensis aizawai (Bta)

Xentari, Florbac, Agree, Design, Ketch (caterpillars)

72. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti)

Skeetal, Mosquito Dunks, Bactimos, Gnatrol, Aquabac, Vetobac, Teknar (mosquitoes, blackfly larvae and fungus gnats)

73. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Btk)

Thuricide, Dipel, Crymax, Foray, BioBit, Scutello, Crymax WDG, Deliver, Javelin, Baritone (caterpillars)

74. Bacillus thuringiensis tenebrionis (Btt)

Novodor, Raven, Potato Shield, Foil (beetle larvae)

75. Bacillus popilliae

Milky Spore (Japanese beetles)

76. Bacillus sphaericus

VectoLex, Spherimos (mosquito larvae)

77. Beauveria bassiana

Naturalis-O, L and T, Mycotrol, Botanigard (aphids, grubs, chinch bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, and sod webworms)

78. Nosema locustae

Nolo Bait, Semispore Bait (grasshoppers)

79. Nucleopolyhedrosis virus (NPV)

Gem-Star, NPV, Spod-X (caterpillars)

80. Paecilomyces fumosoroseus

PreFeRal, PFR-97 (aphids)

81. Saccharopolyspora spinosa

Entrust (caterpillars, beetle larvae, thrips and leafminers)

82. Verticillium lecanii

Vertalec (aphids in greenhouses)

Microbial Nematicides

83. Steinernema feltiae MG-13

(Meloidogyne incognita, root-knot nematode on greenhouse tomatoes); technically not a microbial product. Available from Sierra Biological (see Table 7)

84. Myrothecium verrucaria

DiTera (nematodes)

Microbial Fungicides

85. Agrobacterium radiobacter

Galltrol-A, Gallex, NoGall K1026 (crown gall)

86. Bacillus pumilis

Activate, Ballad Plus, Sonata (fungal diseases)

87. Bacillus subtilis

Serenade, Cease (fungal and bacterial diseases)

88. Gliocladium virens

SoilGard, Gliomix (Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium)

74. Pseudomonas fluorescens

Blight Ban (fire blight)

89. Reynoutria sachalinensis

Regalia (Powdery mildew and Botrytis grey mold)

90. Streptomyces spp.

Mycostop, RootGuard, Agrimycin, Actinovate (Fusarium, damping off, Pythium, Phytophthora, and fire blight)

91. Trichoderma spp.

Plant Shield, Plant Gard, Binab-T, Root Shield (Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Cylindrocladium, and Thielaviopsis)

Table 7. 

Member companies of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers that market nematodes, mites, and insects for pest management in North America. Products available from these companies are listed in Tables 2–6. For companies that produce or sell biopesticides, visit the IR-4 Biopesticide and Organic Database for Integrated Pest Management (see sources of information section).

Company

Website

Anatis Bioprotection

http://anatisbioprotection.com

Applied Bio-nomics

http://www.appliedbio-nomics.com

ARBICO Organics

http://www.arbico-organics.com

Associates Insectary

http://www.associatesinsectary.com

BASF Agricultural Specialties

http://betterplants.basf.us.com

Beneficial Insectary

http://www.insectary.com

Biobest Canada

http://www.biobest.ca

Biobest USA

http://www.biobest.be

Bio Control, S. A.

http://www.biocontrol.cr

BioWorks

http://www.bioworksinc.com

Buglogical Control Systems

http://www.buglogical.com

Crop Defenders

http://www.cropdefenders.com/

Distribuciones Imex S. A. de C. V.

http://www.imex.mx/

EcoSolutions

http://www.ecosolutionsbeneficials.com

Entomology Solutions

http://www.bugsbehavingbadly.com/

Evergreen Growers Supply

http://www.evergreengrowers.com

Everwood Farm

http://www.everwoodfarm.com/

Foothill Agriculture Research

http://farincinsectary.wix.com/far-inc-website

Green Methods

http://greenmethods.com

GrowLiv

http://www.growliv.com/

Hydro-Gardens

http://www.hydro-gardens.com

IPM Laboratories

http://www.ipmlabs.com

Koppert Biological Systems

http://www.koppert.com

Kunafin “The Insectary”

http://www.kunafin.com

M & R Durango

http://goodbug.com

Natural Enemies Bio. Pest Mgmt.

http://naturalenemiesbiocontrol.com/

Natural Insect Control

http://www.naturalinsectcontrol.com/

Orcon (Organic Control)

http://organiccontrol.com/

Rincon-Vitova

http://www.rinconvitova.com

Sespe Creek Insectary

http://www.anbp.org/products_sespecreek.htm

Sierra Biological Inc.

http://www.sierrabiological.com/

Sound Horticulture

http://soundhorticulture.com/

Spalding Laboratories

https://www.spalding-labs.com

Syngenta Bioline

http://www.syngenta-bioline.com

Tip Top Bio-Control

http://www.tiptopbiocontrol.com/

Table 8. 

Additional companies selling natural enemies.

Company

Website

A-1 Unique Insect Control

http://www.a-1unique.com

AgBioChem

http://www.agbiochem.com

American Insectaries

http://www.betterbugs.com

Andermatt Biocontrol

http://www.biocontrol.ch

BCP Certis

http://www.bcpcertis.com

Binab

http://www.algonet.se/~binab/index2.html

Biocontrol Network

http://www.biconet.com

Biofac Crop Care

http://www.biofac.com

BioLogic Company

http://www.biologicco.com

Biotactics

http://www.benemite.com

Bonide

http://www.bonideproducts.com

California Agriculture Supply

http://www.californiaagsupply.com/

Certis

http://www.certisusa.com

Eartheasy

http://www.eartheasy.com

Gardens Alive

http://www.gardensalive.com

Global Horticultural

http://www.globalhort.com/

Harmony Farm Supply

http://harmonyfarm.com

Marrone Bio Innovations

http://www.marronebioinnovations.com/

Natural Pest Controls

http://www.natpestco.com/

North Country Organics

http://www.norganics.com

Peaceful Valley

http://www.groworganic.com

Planet Natural

http://www.planetnatural.com

Plant Products Company

http://www.plantprod.com

Three Trees Farm

http://www.redwiggler.com

Troy Biosciences

http://www.troybiosciences.com

Valent BioSciences

http://www.valentbiosciences.com

Footnotes

1.

This document is IPM-146 (IN849), one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension. Reviewed and revised August 2015. Originally titled Guidelines for Purchasing and Using Commercial Natural Enemies and Biopesticides in Florida and Other States, published July 2010 by Norman C. Leppla, professor, and Kenneth L. Johnson II, USDA, NIFA, National Needs Fellow, IPM Florida, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Lynn M. LeBeck, executive director, Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers (ANBP); and Norman C. Leppla, professor and integrated pest management program director, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.