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Publication #ENY-863

Common Weed Hosts of Insect-Transmitted Viruses of Florida Vegetable Crops1

Gaurav Goyal, Harsimran K. Gill, and Robert McSorley2

Weed growth can severely decrease the commercial, recreational, and aesthetic values of crops, landscapes, and waterways. More information on weeds can be found in Hall et al. (2009i). Other than affecting crop production by reducing the amount of nutrients available to the main crop, weeds can also influence crop production by acting as reservoirs of various viruses that are transmitted by insects. Several insects transmit different viruses in different crops, but aphids and whiteflies are among the most important virus vectors (carriers of viruses) on vegetable crops in Florida. The insect vectors feed on various parts of weeds that are infected by a virus and acquire the virus in the process. They then can feed on uninfected agricultural crops and transmit the virus to them. Insects are often attracted to weeds and survive on them because weeds can provide food for insects when preferred food is scarce, or weeds can provide shelter from adverse conditions such as bad weather or pesticide applications. Several weeds have been reported as virus hosts by Kucharek and Purcifull (2001). The current publication includes additional and updated material since that time and provides links to further information on specific viruses that affect vegetable crops. Certain volunteer vegetable plants can also act as sources of viruses that endanger the main crop.

Information on weed hosts of various vegetable viruses can be found in Table 1. Virus names are often based on the name of the vegetable they attack; however, certain viruses affect many different vegetables, e.g., Cucumber mosaic virus attacks bell pepper, tomato, spinach, cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, celery, and watercress. References to appropriate publications are provided for easy cross-reference and more details about the virus under consideration. Common viruses with their family and genus names are provided in Table 2. Information is also provided for each vegetable that was reported infected by the virus, and on the insect vectors that transmit the virus. Some viruses, such as Tomato mosaic virus, are not transmitted by vectors. Others, such as Bean common mosaic virus, can be transmitted by vectors or through seed. Detailed information about viruses and their transmission has been summarized by Adams and Antoniw (2011). Common and scientific names of weeds that act as virus sources are listed in Table 3.

Removal of weeds that act as virus sources may be helpful in reducing the initial infestation by a virus of the main crop in the same field as well as other fields that are near the weeds. Removal of volunteer plants from field borders may also help in management of viral diseases (Momol and Pernezny 2006).

While a number of weeds in and around fields of different crops can act as virus sources for the main vegetable crop, some of them are particularly important because of their ability to host a number of different viruses. A few of these are balsam apple (Figure 1), creeping cucumber (Figure 2), groundcherry (Figure 3), dayflower (Figure 4), American black nightshade (Figure 5), hairy indigo (Figure 6), and citron (Figure 7). The American black nightshade is common in Florida (MacRae 2010), and it is possible that some of the references to “nightshade” in Table 1 or to “black nightshade” may actually refer to this plant. Recognition of these common virus host plants is important because they may be reservoirs for viruses, allowing them to survive during the off-season when the main vegetable crops are not grown.

Figure 1. 

Balsam apple (Momordica spp.),


Credit:

Brent Sellers (Hall et al. 2009a)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 2. 

Creeping cucumber (Melothria pendula),


Credit:

Gaurav Goyal


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 3. 

Cutleaf groundcherry (Physalis angulata),


Credit:

Brent Sellers (Hall et al. 2009b)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 4. 

Dayflower (Commelina spp.),


Credit:

Gaurav Goyal


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 5. 

American black nightshade (Solanum americanum),


Credit:

Gaurav Goyal


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 6. 

Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta),


Credit:

Robert McSorley


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 7. 

Citron (Citrullus lanatus),


Credit:

Gaurav Goyal


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

References Cited

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Adkins, S., S. E. Webb, P. D. Roberts, C. S. Kousik, P. A. Stansly, B. D. Bruton, D. Achor, R. M. Muchovej, and C. A. Baker. 2010. A review of Ipomoviruses and Watermelon decline in Florida, pp. 333-337. In P.A. Stansly and S.E. Naranjo (eds.), Bemisia: Bionomics and management of a global pest. Springer Publishing, New York.

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Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009e. Lamb’s quarters (Common lamb’s-quarters), Chenopodium album L. Excerpt from Weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fw011).

Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009f. Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia L. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fw007).

Hall, D. W., V. V. Vandiver, and J. A. Ferrell. 2009g. Wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum L. Excerpt from weeds in Florida. Agronomy Department SP 37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fw032).

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MacRae, A. W. 2010. American black nightshade biology and control in fruiting vegetables, cucurbits, and small fruits. Horticultural Sciences Department HS 1176. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hs1176).

McGovern, R. J., J. E. Polston, G. M. Danyluk, E. Hiebert, A. M. Abouzid, and P. A. Stansly. 1994. Identification of a natural weed host of tomato mottle geminivirus in Florida. Plant Disease 78:1102-1106.

Momol, T., and K. Pernezny. 2006. Florida plant disease management guide: Tomato. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-53. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg059).

Momol, T., R. Raid, and T. Kucharek. 2005. Florida plant disease management guide: Crucifers. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-37. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg045).

Mossler, M. A. 2010. Florida crop/pest management profile: Muskmelon. Agronomy Department CIR 1272. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi047).

Mossler, M. A., B. C. Larson, and O. N. Nesheim. 2010. Florida crop/pest management profiles: Celery. Horticultural Sciences CIR 1235.

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(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pi042).

Mossler, M. A., and O. N. Nesheim. 2011. Florida crop/pest management profile: squash. Agronomy Department, CIR 1265. Florida Cooperative

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Newman, Y. C., A. R. Blount, and J. Vendramini. 2010a. Alyceclover – summer annual legume. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-47. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available:

(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ds123).

Newman, Y. C., J. Vendramini, and A. R. Blount. 2010b. Minor use summer annual forage legumes. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-79. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ag156).

Orsenigo, J. R., and T.A. Zitter. 1971. Vegetable virus problems in south Florida as related to weed science. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 84: 168-171.

Pernezny, K., and R. Raid. 2008. 2006 Florida plant disease management guide: Lettuce and endive. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-40. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg048).

Raid, R., and Kucharek, T. 2006a. Florida plant disease management guide: Celery. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-36. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available:

(http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg044).

Raid, R., and T. Kucharek. 2006b. 2006 Florida Plant disease management guide: spinach. Plant Pathology Department PDMG-V3-48. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Available: (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pg054).

Rodríguez-Alvarado, G., S. Fernandez-Pavia, R. Creamer, and C. Liddell. 2002. Pepper mottle virus causing disease in Chile peppers in southern New Mexico. Plant Disease 86:603-605.

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Sellers, B., and J. Ferrell. 2010. Thistle control in pastures. Agronomy Department SS-AGR-95. Florida Cooperative Extension Service,

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Tables

Table 1. 

Weed hosts of several important vegetable viruses in Florida

Weed Host

Virus

Reference

Alyceclover

Watermelon mosaic virus

Mossler and Nesheim (2011)

American burnweed

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

American pokeweed

Cucumber mosaic virus

Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Balsam apple

Cucurbit leaf crumple virus

Webb et al. (2010), Webb et al. (2011)

Balsam apple

Papaya ringspot virusType W

Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Larson et al. (2011)

Balsam apple

Squash vein yellowing virus

Baker et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2010)

Balsam pear

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Fukumoto et al. (1993)

Beggarticks

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

Beggarticks

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Big chickweed

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Bull thistle

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Burr clover

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Butterweed

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

Canadian horseweed

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

Canadian toadflax

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Carolina cranesbill

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Carolina desertchicory

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Cheeseweed mallow

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Cheeseweed mallow

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey(1989)

Chicory

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Citron

Watermelon mosaic virus

Kucharek and Purcifull (2001)

Clasping Venus’ looking-glass

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Cocklebur

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Common chickweed

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Common chickweed

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989), Groves et al. (2002)

Common groundsel

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Common plantain

Tobacco mosaic virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Common sowthistle

Tobacco etch virus

Sikora (1998)

Creeping cucumber

Papaya ringspot virus type W

Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Larson et al. (2011)

Creeping cucumber

Squash vein yellowing virus

Baker et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2008), Adkins et al. (2010)

Creeping cucumber

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Kucharek and Purcifull (2001), Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Mossler (2010)

Curlytop knotweed

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Dayflower

Cucumber mosaic virus

Momol and Pernezny (2006), Raid and Kucharek (2006a), Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley ( 1992)

Dogfennel

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Field bindweed

Cucumber mosaic virus

Rodríguez-Alvarado et al. (2002)

Field bindweed

Pepper mottle virus

Rodríguez-Alvarado et al. (2002)

Field bindweed

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Florida beggarweed

Watermelon mosaic virus

Larson et al. (2011)

Groundcherry

Cucumber mosaic virus

Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Groundcherry

Pepper mottle virus

Rodríguez-Alvarado et al. (2002)

Groundcherry

Tobacco etch virus

Johnson (2011)

Hairy bittercress

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Hairy buttercup

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Hairy indigo

Watermelon mosaic virus

Mossler and Nesheim (2011), Kucharek and Purcifull (2001)

Henbit deadnettle

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Horse nettle

Cucumber mosaic virus

Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Horse nettle

Tobacco mosaic virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Horse nettle

Tobacco etch virus

Johnson (2011)

Indian chickweed

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Ivy gourd

Papaya ringspot virus type W

Mossler and Nesheim (2011)

Jimson weed

Pepper mottle virus

Kucharek et al. (1996)

Jimson weed

Potato virus Y

Kucharek et al. (1996)

Jimson weed

Tobacco etch virus

Sikora (1998)

Jimson weed

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

Brown and Simone (1994)

Johnsongrass

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Lambsquarter

Tobacco etch virus

Sikora (1998)

Lambsquarter

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Lambsquarter

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Lambsquarter

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Little hogweed

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Lupine

Watermelon mosaic virus

Mossler and Nesheim (2011)

Mallows

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

Brown and Simone (1994)

Marsh parsley

Western Celery mosaic virus/Celery mosaic virus

Mossler et al. (2010)

Mexican pricklypoppy

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

Milkweed

Cucumber mosaic virus

Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Mock bishopweed

Western Celery mosaic virus/Celery mosaic virus

Mossler et al. (2010)

Mustard type weeds*

Turnip mosaic virus

Momol et al. (2005), Mossler et al. (2011)

Nasturtium

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Nettleleaf goosefoot

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Nettleleaf goosefoot

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Nightshade

Cucumber mosaic virus

Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Nightshade

Pepper mottle virus

Rodríguez-Alvarado et al. (2002)

Nightshade

Potato virus Y

Orsenigo and Zitter (1971), Momol and Pernezny (2006)

Nightshade

Pseudo curly top virus

Momol and Pernezny (2006)

Nightshade

Tomato yellows virus

Momol and Pernezny (2006)

Nightshade

Tobacco etch virus

Momol and Pernezny (2006), Sikora (1998)

Nightshade

Tobacco mosaic virus

Adkins and Rosskopf (2002)

One leaf clover

Watermelon mosaic virus

Kucharek and Purcifull (2001)

Prickly lettuce

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Prickly lettuce

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Ragweed

Cucumber mosaic virus

Raid and Kucharek (2006b), Ferreira and Boley (1992)

Ragweed

Pseudo curly top virus

Momol and Pernezny (2006)

Redstem stork’s bill

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Rough pigweed

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Scarlet pimpernel

Lettuce mosaic virus

Koike and Davis (2009)

Shepherd’s purse

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Showy rattlebox

Watermelon mosaic virus

Larson et al. (2011), Kucharek and Purcifull (2001)

Sicklepod

Tobacco etch virus

Sikora (1998)

Sowthistle

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Zitter and Daughtrey (1989)

Sowthistle

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

Brown and Simone (1994)

Spiny sowthistle

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Spoonleaf purple everlasting

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

Tropical soda apple

Tomato mottle virus

McGovern et al. (1994)

Virginia pepperweed

Bidens mottle virus

Pernezny and Raid (2008)

Wild bushbean

Bean golden mosaic virus

Bracero and Rivera (2003)

Wild radish

Tobacco rattle virus

Dikova (1946)

Wild radish

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Groves et al. (2002)

* mustard type weeds – Shepherd's purse (Zitter and Provvidenti 1984), Brassica spp. (Jenner and Walsh 1996)

Table 2. 

Common viruses, families, vegetable crop hosts, and their vectors

Virus

Family

Genus

Crop Hosts

Vector

Bean common mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Beans, snap beans

Aphids

Bean golden mosaic virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Beans, snap beans

Whiteflies

Bean yellow mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Snap beans

Whiteflies

Bidens mottle virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Endive, escarole lettuce

Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae)

Cabbage leaf curl virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Watercress

Whiteflies

Cucumber mosaic virus

Bromoviridae

Cucumovirus

Bell pepper, cantaloupe, celery, cucumber, pumpkin, spinach, squash, tomato, watercress

Aphids

Cucurbit leaf crumple virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Cantaloupe, cucumber, green beans, pumpkin, squash, watermelon, zucchini

Whiteflies

Dasheen mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Malanga

Several species of aphids

Groundnut ringspot virus

Bunyaviridae

Tospovirus

Tomato

Thrips

Lettuce mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Endive, escarole lettuce

Green peach aphid

Papaya ringspot virusType W

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, watermelon

Aphids

Pepper mottle virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Bell pepper

Aphids

Potato virus Y

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Bell pepper, potato, tomato

Aphids

Pseudo-curly top virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Tomato

Whiteflies

Squash vein yellowing virus

Potyviridae

Ipomovirus

Squash, watermelon

Whiteflies

Tobacco etch virus,

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Bell pepper, tomato

Aphids

Tobacco mosaic virus

Virgaviridae

Tobamovirus

Bell pepper, tomato

 

Tobacco rattle virus

Virgaviridae

Tobravirus

Potato

Stubby-root nematode

Tobacco streak virus

Bromoviridae

Ilarvirus

Snap beans

Thrips

Tomato chlorosis

Closteroviridae

Closterovirus

Tomato

Whiteflies

Tomato mosaic virus

Virgaviridae

Tobamovirus

Tomato

 

Tomato mottle virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Tomato

Whiteflies

Tomato spotted wilt virus

Bunyaviridae

Tospovirus

Bell pepper, tomato, watermelon

Western flower thrips (Franklinella occidentalis), tobacco thrips (F. fusca)

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

Geminiviridae

Begomovirus

Tomato

Whiteflies

Turnip mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Cabbage, spinach

Aphids

Papaya ringspot virusType W

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Squash, watermelon

Aphids

Watermelon mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Cantaloupe, cucumber, pumpkin, squash, watermelon

Aphids

Western Celery mosaic virus/Celery mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Celery

Aphids

Zucchini yellow mosaic virus

Potyviridae

Potyvirus

Cantaloupe, cucumber, squash, watermelon

Aphids

Table 3. 

Common and scientific names of various weed hosts of viruses

Alyce clover, Alysicarpus ovalifolius (Newman et al. 2010a)

American burnweed, Erechtites hieraciifolius

American pokeweed, Phytolacca americana (Stevens 2009d)

Balsam pear (= Balsam apple), Momordica charantia (Hall et al. 2009a)

Beggarticks, Bidens spp. (Hall et al. 2009h)

Big chickweed, Cerastium fontanum subsp. Vulgare

Bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Sellers and Ferrell 2010)

Burr clover, Medicago polymorpha

Butterweed, Packera glabella

Canadian horseweed, Conyza (=Erigeron) Canadensis

Canadian toadflax, Linaria Canadensis

Carolina cranesbill, Geranium carolinianum

Carolina desertchicory, Pyrrhopappus carolinianus

Cheeseweed mallow, Malva parviflora

Chicory, Cichorium intybus (Stephens 2009a)

Citron, Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) var.citroides (Bailey) Mansf. (Stephens 2009b)

Clasping Venus’ looking-glass, Triodanis perfoliata

Cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium

Common chickweed, Stellaria media

Common groundsel, Senecio vulgaris

Common plantain, Plantago major

Common sowthistle, Sonchus oleraceus

Creeping cucumber, Melothria pendula

Curlytop knotweed, Polygonum lapathifolium

Dayflower, Commelina spp. (Ferrell et al. 2009)

Dogfennel, Eupatorium capillifolium

Field bindweed, Convolvulus arvensis

Florida beggarweed, Desmodium tortuosum

Groundcherry, Physalis spp. (Hall et al. 2009b)

Hairy bittercress, Cardamine hirsute

Hairy buttercup, Ranunculus sardous

Hairy indigo, Indigofera hirsuta (Newman et al. 2010b)

Henbit deadnettle, Lamium amplexicaule

Horse nettle, Solanum carolinense (Hall et al. 2009c)

Indian chickweed, Mollugo verticillata

Ivy gourd, Coccinia grandis

Jimson weed, Datura stramonium (Hall et al. 2009d)

Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense

Lambsquarter (Common lambsquarters), Chenopodium album (Hall et al. 2009e)

Little hogweed, Portulaca oleracea (MacRae 2010)

Lupine, Lupinus spp.

Mallows, Malva sp.

Marsh parsley (= wild cherry), Cyclospermum leptophyllum (=Apium leptophyllum)

Mexican pricklypoppy, Argemone mexicana (Sellers 2011)

Milkweed, Asclepias curassavica (Gilman 2011)

Mock bishopweed, Ptilimnium capillaceum

Nasturtium, Tropaeolum majus (Stephens 2009c)

Nettleleaf goosefoot, Chenopodium murale

Nightshade, Solanum spp. (MacRae 2010)

One leaf clover (White moneywort), Alysicarpus vaginalis

Prickly lettuce, Lactuca serriola

Ragweed, Ambrosia spp.

Redstem stork’s bill, Erodium cicutarium

Rough pigweed, Amaranthus retroflexus (Stephens 2009e)

Scarlet pimpernel, Anagallis arvensis

Shepherd’s purse, Capsella bursa-pastoris

Showy rattlebox (=showy crotalaria), Crotalaria spectabilis

Sicklepod, Senna obtusifolia (Hall et al. 2009f)

Sowthistle, Sonchus spp.

Spiny sowthistle, Sonchus asper

Spoonleaf purple everlasting, Gnaphalium purpureum

Tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Sellers et al. 2010)

Virginia pepperweed, Lepidium virginicum

Wild bushbean, Macroptilium lathyroides

Wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum (Hall et al. 2009g)

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-863, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date April 2012. Reviewed February 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Gaurav Goyal, postdoctoral research associate; Harsimran K. Gill, postdoctoral research associate; and Robert McSorley, retired professor; Department of Entomology and Nematology, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL, 32611.


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