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Publication #SL419

Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)—Part 11

Yun-Ya Yang and Gurpal S. Toor2

This publication is part of a series titled Contaminants in the Urban Environment. This series is intended to give state and local government officials, soil scientists, consulting engineers, extension agents, and citizens (1) a basic understanding of the occurrence, toxic effects, and source of various contaminants in the environment and (2) guidance on ways to protect human and environmental health.

Introduction and Purpose

Pharmaceuticals are products that we ingest or give to our pets and domesticated animals to improve health and to prevent or treat human and animal diseases. Pharmaceuticals include over-the-counter drugs, prescription medicines, nutritional supplements, and veterinary drugs.

Personal care products are products used to improve the quality of daily life by adorning and cleaning our bodies. Personal care products include lotions, fragrances, shampoos, antibacterial soaps, detergents, sunscreens, insect repellents, and cosmetics.

Together, these products are known as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, abbreviated as PPCPs (Figure 1).

Figure 1. 

Common pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in households


Credit:

iStock/Thinkstock.com


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

This publication, Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)—Part 1, provides an overview of the use and sale of PPCPs in the United States and the world. The second publication, Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)—Part 2, discusses the sources and impacts of PPCPs as well as the ways to protect our environment from PPCPs (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss633).

Use of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)

Pharmaceuticals: Pharmaceuticals can be broadly split into two groups: (1) over-the-counter medications that do not require a doctor’s prescription and (2) medications that require a doctor’s prescription. In the United States and the rest of the world, most of the medication use (sale) is for the prescription medicines.

(1) Over-the-Counter (OTC) Medications: In 2012, OTC medications (both for oral ingestion and topical use) worth $23 billion were sold in the United States. Cold, pain, and heartburn medications were the top categories (see Table 1). According to a report by Visiongain (2014), the worldwide sale of OTC medications could exceed $93 billion by 2015.

(2) Prescription Medications: In 2012, the sale of prescription medicines was $856 billion worldwide. Of that $856 billion, medications worth $330 billion (39 percent of total) were sold in the United States alone (IMS Institute for Healthcare Information 2013), which is almost 15 times more than the OTC medications sold ($23 billion).

Table 2 shows the top 20 prescription medications sold in the United States and worldwide in 2012. The top 20 medications sold in the United States had a value of about $70 billion. In the United States, the top three therapeutic classes of medications were hypertension ($656 million), pain ($472 million), and mental ($329 million; Fig. 2). Looking at the worldwide trends, the top three therapeutic classes of medications were oncology, pain, and hypertension.

Figure 2. 

Sale of pharmaceutical based on therapeutic classes (a) worldwide and (b) in the United States


Credit:

http://www.imshealth.com/ and http://www.drugs.com/stats/top100/2012/sales


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

The types of prescription medications most commonly used in the United States varied with age (Gu et al. 2010)—asthma medications for childen (ages 0–11), central nervous system stimulants for adolescents (12–19), antidepressants for middle-aged adults (20–59), and cholesterol lowering and high blood pressure drugs for older Americans (60 and older).

The data on medication sales provide some perspective on how we use medications. For example, throughout the last decade the percentage of Americans who indicated they had used one prescription medication in the previous month increased by 4%, the use of multiple prescription medications increased by 6%, and the use of five or more medications increased by 5% (Gu et al. 2010).

Patients using prescription medications varied by age and gender. Data in Figure 3 shows that prescription use increased during the three time periods (1988–1994, 1999–2002, and 2007–2010). For example, men 65 years and older who claimed to have used three or more prescriptions in the previous month was 30% in 1988–1994. This increased to 45% in 1999–2002 and to 65% in 2007–2010. For women 65 years and order, the use of three or more prescriptions in the previous month was 38% in 1988–1994, and this increased to 55% in 1999–2002 and to 65% in 2007–2010. Based on these statistics, women were more likely to use medications than men (Fig. 3). During the three time periods, patient use of prescription medications increased with age: 5% for children, 10%–40% for working-aged adults, and 30%–70% for adults aged 65 and over. Overall, the use of three or more prescription medications in the previous month increased for all age groups of both males and females from 1988–1994 to 2007–2010.

Figure 3. 

Use of three or more prescription medications in the previous month, by gender and age in the United States


Credit:

National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS). Health, United States, 2012. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Consider that the United States is home to approximately 5 percent of the total world population and this population uses about 39 percent of total prescription medication sales. Generally, a higher amount of a given medicine is prescribed and used so that there is a sufficient amount of medicine to work in the body and cure the symptoms or disease. A higher amount of medicine intake results in a greater amount of medicine excretion, either as the parent compound or as transformation products (or metabolites) in feces and urine. For example, research shows that of the total medicine taken, about 19%–22% is excreted as parent compound and additional 3%–49% is excreted as metabolites in the urine and feces (Lienert et al. 2007). Thus, the household wastewater that contains feces and urine ends up containing medicines and becomes a source of the parent medicine or its metabolites in the environment.

Personal Care Products: Many people use personal care products on a daily basis, be it hair or skin care products. The total global sale of personal care products was $380 billion in 2010. It is estimated that spending on personal care products will continue to grow by 3% per year (Rexam 2011).

As shown in Fig. 4, worldwide hair care products are the number one seller ($152 billion; 40% of total), followed by bath and shower products ($91 billion; 24% of total), and facial skin care products ($19 billion; 5% of total). In the global market of personal care products, Asia-Pacific region has the largest share (56%), followed by Europe (19%), Latin America (14%), North America (8%), and Middle East and Africa (2%).

Figure 4. 

Total global sales of personal care products in 2010


Credit:

Rexam (2011)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Figure 5 shows that in the United States in 2013, skin care products sales were $9.8 billion, followed by hair care products ($7.8 billion) and makeup products ($6.5 billion). Note that in comparison to sale of $330 billion on prescription and $23 billion on OTC medications, consumers in the United States spend far less (~$30 billion) on personal care products.

Figure 5. 

Projected dollar sales of the US cosmetics and toiletries industry by product class, 2008 to 2013


Credit:

Kline & Company (http://www.klinegroup.com/reports/emailings/newsletters/chemicals/december2009/timely_trends.asp)


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Personal care products contain a variety of chemical substances. For example, phthalates are a group of compounds widely used in cosmetics, fragrances, hair products, and shampoo. Widely used as an antibacterial and antifungal agent, triclosan is present as an additive in a variety of consumer products, including soaps, deodorants, and toothpastes. For example, liquid soap may contain 0.3 to 0.5 percent of triclosan. Many of these products enter household wastewater from bath and shower, sinks, and washers and ultimately find their way into the environment. Continuous discharge of wastewater contributes to the accumulation of these substances in the environment.

Because of the presence of these substances, PPCPs discarded into the environment can be harmful to organisms. For example, triclosan and its transformation products have been found in water, plant, and fish samples; and they may have adverse effects on algal communities and aquatic organisms (Wilson et al. 2003). Consult the second publication, Contaminants in the Urban Environment: Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs)—Part 2 (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ss633) to learn about these harmful effects along with ways to protect ourselves and our environment.

References

Gu, Q., C. F. Dillon, and V. L. Burt. 2010. “Prescription Drug Use Continues to Increase: U.S. Prescription Drug Data for 2007–2008.” NCHS Data Brief, no 42. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

IMS Institute for Healthcare Information. 2013. Accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.imshealth.com/.

National Center for Health Statistics. 2013. Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care. Hysttsville, MD.

Rexam PLC. 2011. Packaging Unwrapped: Rexam Consumer Packaging Report 2011/12. Accessed January 26, 2015. http://www.rexam.com/files/pdf/packaging_unwrapped_2011.pdf.

Visiongain. 2014. “World OTC Pharmaceuticals market Forecast 2015–2025: Prospects for Leading Companies.” Accessed January 26, 2015. https://www.visiongain.com/Report/1368/World-OTC-Pharmaceuticals-Market-Forecast-2015-2025.

Wilson, B. S., V. H. Smith, F. DeNoyelles, and C. K. Larive. 2003. “Effects of three pharmaceutical and personal care products on natural freshwater algal assemblages.” Environmental Science and Technology 37: 1713–1719.

Tables

Table 1. 

Sale of top OTC medications in the United States

Top OTC Medications Sales for Oral Ingestion

Top OTC Medications Sales for Topical Use

Cough/cold and allergy remedies ($6.6 billion)

Oral antiseptics and rinses ($1.4 billion)

Analgesics and pain products ($3.9 billion)

First aid treatment ($1.1 billion)

Heartburn medicines and anti-gas products ($2.3 billion)

Eye care products ($0.85 billion)

Laxatives ($1.4 billion)

 

Anti-smoking ($1.2 billion)

 

Source: http://pharma.about.com/od/Over-the-Counter-Medicine/a/Top-selling-Otc-Drugs-By-Category-2012.htm

Table 2. 

Top 20 prescription medications sales in 2012

     

US

Global

Product

Active Ingredient

Use

Rank

Sales (US $ Billion)

Rank

Sales (US $ Billion)

Nexium

Esomeprazole

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

1

5.64

4

7.5

Abilify

Aripiprazole

Major depressive disorder

2

5.6

7

7.0

Crestor

Rosuvastatin calcium

High cholesterol and high triglycerides in the blood

3

4.76

3

8.3

Advair Diskus

Fluticasone propionate, salmeterol xinafoate

Asthma in patients 4 years and older

4

4.62

1

8.9

Cymbalta

Duloxetine hydrochloride

Major depressive disorder and general anxiety disorder

5

4.47

10

5.8

Humira

Adalimumab

Rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis

6

4.3

2

8.5

Enbrel

Etanercept

Rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriatic arthritis

7

3.99

5

7.5

Remicade

Infliximab

Rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease

8

3.72

6

7.3

Copaxone

Glatiramer acetate

Multiple sclerosis

9

3.33

18

4.5

Neulasta

Pegfilgrastim

Neutropenia

10

3.32

20

4.3

Rituxan

Rituximab

Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia

11

3.13

Singulair

Montelukast sodium

Seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis

12

16

4.7

Atripla

Efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

13

2.77

OxyContin

Oxycodone hydrochloride

Moderate to severe pain

14

2.69

Spiriva

Tiotropium

Breathing difficulties caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

15

2.69

13

5.1

Avastin

Bevacizumab

Patients with certain types of colorectal and lung cancers

16

2.56

11

5.4

Plavix

Clopidogrel bisulfate

Prevent blood clots after a recent heart attack

17

12

5.2

Januvia

Sitagliptin

Type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes

18

2.5

Lantus

Insulin glargine

Type 1 (insulin-dependent) or type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetes

19

2.21

8

6.6

Truvada

Tenofovir disoproxil and emtricitabine

HIV

20

2.21

6.0

MabThera

Rituximab

Rheumatoid arthritis

 

9

4.3

Glivec

Imatinib mesilate

Blood cancer

28

1.7

19

 

Lipitor

Atorvastatin

High cholesterol, and to lower the risk of stroke, heart attack

31

14

5.1

Herceptin

Trastuzumab

Breast cancer

 

15

5.0

Source: http://www.drugs.com/stats/top100/2012/sales

Footnotes

1.

This document is SL419, one of a series of the Soil and Water Science Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date March 2015. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Yun-Ya Yang, postdoctoral researcher, Soil and Water Quality Laboratory, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimauma, FL; and Gurpal S. Toor, associate professor, Soil and Water Quality Laboratory, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC, Wimauma, FL; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.