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Publication #ENH563

Mangifera indica: Mango1

Edward F. Gilman, Dennis G. Watson, Ryan W. Klein, Andrew K. Koeser, Deborah R. Hilbert, and Drew C. McLean2

Introduction

An abundant harvest of juicy, red-gold fruit and attractive dark green, tropical foliage make mango a popular home landscape item in very large yards for warm climates. The trees grows to be 30 to 60 feet tall and almost 50 feet wide, so allow plenty of room for growth. New foliage is a brilliant reddish purple, and flower and fruit clusters extend well beyond the long, shiny leaves. The tree is covered with very showy, white, yellow, pinkish, or reddish flower spikes in March and early April. Mango trees grow quickly into round, multibranched, dense, spreading shade trees but placement is limited due to the falling fruit. Some people are allergic to the pollen, the sap and even the fruit.

Figure 1. 

Full Form - Mangifera indica: mango


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

General Information

Scientific name: Mangifera indica

Pronunciation: man-JIFF-er-uh IN-dih-kuh

Common name(s): mango

Family: Anacardiaceae

USDA hardiness zones: 10B through 11 (Figure 2)

Origin: native to southern Asia

UF/IFAS Invasive Assessment Status: aution, may be recommended but manage to prevent escape (Central, South); not considered a problem species at this time, may be recommended (North)

Uses: hedge; screen; shade; fruit

Figure 2. 

Range


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Description

Height: 30 to 60 feet

Spread: 30 to 50 feet

Crown uniformity: symmetrical

Crown shape: round

Crown density: dense

Growth rate: fast

Texture: coarse

Foliage

Leaf arrangement: alternate

Leaf type: simple

Leaf margin: entire, undulate

Leaf shape: lanceolate to elongated-elliptic

Leaf venation: pinnate, brachidodrome

Leaf type and persistence: evergreen, broadleaf evergreen

Leaf blade length: 4 to 12 inches

Leaf color: dark green and shiny on top, paler green underneath

Fall color: no color change

Fall characteristic: not showy

Figure 3. 

Leaf - Mangifera indica: mango


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Flower

Flower color: white, yellowish, pinkish, or reddish

Flower characteristics: showy; emerges in clusters on 2 ½ - 15 ½” long, reddish, branched panicles

Flowering: late winter to early spring

Figure 4. 

Flower - Mangifera indica: mango


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Fruit

Fruit shape: oval or kidney-shaped

Fruit length: 3 to 10 inches

Fruit covering: fleshy drupe

Fruit color: turns from green to a mix of green, yellow, orange, or red when ripe

Fruit characteristics: attracts squirrels/mammals; showy; fruit/leaves a litter problem; fragrant

Figure 5. 

Fruit - Mangifera indica: mango


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/branches: branches droop; not showy; typically one trunk; no thorns

Bark: gray to brown, thick, smooth, and becomes scaly and flaky with age

Pruning requirement: needed for strong structure

Breakage: susceptible to breakage

Current year twig color: gray, brown

Current year twig thickness: medium, thick

Wood specific gravity: unknown

Figure 6. 

Bark - Mangifera indica: mango


Credit:

Gitta Hasing, UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Culture

Light requirement: full sun

Soil tolerances: clay; sand; loam; alkaline; acidic; well-drained

Drought tolerance: moderate

Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate

Other

Roots: not a problem

Winter interest: no

Outstanding tree: no

Ozone sensitivity: unknown

Verticillium wilt susceptibility: unknown

Pest resistance: sensitive to pests/diseases

Use and Management

Mango trees grow best in full sun on fertile, well-drained soils and should have ample moisture. Leaf, flower, twig and fruit litter is a constant nuisance for some, and branches are subject to breakage during severe windstorms. It seems like something is always falling from a mango tree to litter the lawn. Place it in a bed with other plants to hide the litter.

There are several cultivars available which have been selected for fruit quality: `Keitt', `Hent', `Edward', `Glenn', `Haden' and others are best for Florida; `Alolia', `Edgehill', `Haden', `Manila' and others are recommended for California.

Propagation is by budding or veneer grafting on seedling rootstocks.

Pests

Scales followed by sooty mold and Mediterranean fruit fly are pests of this tree.

Diseases

Anthracnose on fruit and leaves is a serious problem for mango.

Reference

Koeser, A.K., Friedman, M.H., Hasing, G., Finley, H., Schelb, J. 2017. Trees: South Florida and the Keys. University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH563, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Revised December 2018. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Edward F. Gilman, professor emeritus, Environmental Horticulture Department; Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department; Ryan W. Klein, graduate assistant, Environmental Horticulture Department; Andrew K. Koeser, assistant professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Deborah R. Hilbert, graduate assistant, Environmental Horticulture Department, GCREC; and Drew C. McLean, biological scientist, Environmental Horticulture Department, GCREC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.