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Publication #ENH563

Mangifera indica: Mango1

Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson2

Introduction

An abundant harvest of juicy, red-gold fruit and attractive dark green, tropical foliage make Mango a popular home landscape item in very large yards for warm climates. The trees grows to be 30 to 45 feet tall and almost 50 feet wide, so allow plenty of room for growth. New foliage is a brilliant purple-red, and flower and fruit clusters extend well beyond the long, glossy leaves. The tree is covered with very showy, white flower spikes in March and early April. Mango trees grow quickly into round, multibranched, dense, spreading shade trees but placement is limited due to the falling fruit. Some people are allergic to the pollen, the sap and even the fruit.

Figure 1. 

Middle-aged Mangifera indica: Mango.


Credit:

R. A. Howard @ US National Herbarium, Department of Botany, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

General Information

Scientific name: Mangifera indica
Pronunciation: man-JIFF-er-uh IN-dih-kuh
Common name(s): Mango
Family: Anacardiaceae
USDA hardiness zones: 10B through 11 (Figure 2)
Figure 2. 

Range


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]
Origin: not native to North America
Invasive potential: According to the IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas (IFAS Invasive Plant Working Group 2008), Mangifera indica should be treated with caution in the central and south zone in Florida, may be recommended but managed to prevent escape. It is not considered a problem species and may be recommended in the north zone in Florida (counties listed by zone at: http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/assessment/pdfs/assess_counties.pdf)
Uses: hedge; screen; shade; fruit
Availability: not native to North America

Description

Height: 30 to 45 feet
Spread: 30 to 40 feet
Crown uniformity: symmetrical
Crown shape: round
Crown density: dense
Growth rate: fast
Texture: coarse

Foliage

Leaf arrangement: alternate (Figure 3)
Leaf type: simple
Leaf margin: entire, undulate
Leaf shape: lanceolate, oblong
Leaf venation: pinnate, brachidodrome
Leaf type and persistence: evergreen, broadleaf evergreen
Leaf blade length: 8 to 12 inches, 12 to 18 inches
Leaf color: green
Fall color: no color change
Fall characteristic: not showy

Figure 3. 

Foliage


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Flower

Flower color: white/cream/gray
Flower characteristics: showy

Fruit

Fruit shape: oval
Fruit length: 3 to 6 inches
Fruit covering: fleshy
Fruit color: green, red, yellow
Fruit characteristics: attracts squirrels/mammals; showy; fruit/leaves a litter problem

Figure 4. 

Fruit.


Credit:

P. Acevedo @ US National Herbarium, Department of Botany, NMNH, Smithsonian Institution


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Trunk and Branches

Trunk/bark/branches: branches droop; not showy; typically one trunk; thorns
Pruning requirement: needed for strong structure
Breakage: susceptible to breakage
Current year twig color: gray, brown
Current year twig thickness: medium, thick
Wood specific gravity: unknown

Culture

Light requirement: full sun
Soil tolerances: clay; sand; loam; alkaline; acidic; well-drained
Drought tolerance: moderate
Aerosol salt tolerance: moderate

Other

Roots: not a problem
Winter interest: no
Outstanding tree: no
Ozone sensitivity: unknown
Verticillium wilt susceptibility: unknown
Pest resistance: sensitive to pests/diseases

Use and Management

Mango trees grow best in full sun on fertile, well-drained soils and should have ample moisture. Leaf, flower, twig and fruit litter is a constant nuisance for some, and branches are subject to breakage during severe windstorms. It seems like something is always falling from a Mango tree to litter the lawn. Place it in a bed with other plants to hide the litter.

There are several cultivars available which have been selected for fruit quality: `Keitt', `Hent', `Edward', `Glenn', `Haden' and others are best for Florida; `Alolia', `Edgehill', `Haden', `Manila' and others are recommended for California.

Propagation is by budding or veneer grafting on seedling rootstocks.

Pests

Scales followed by sooty mold and Mediterranean fruit fly are pests of this tree.

Diseases

Anthracnose on fruit and leaves is a serious problem for Mango.

Literature Cited

Fox, A.M., D.R. Gordon, J.A. Dusky, L. Tyson, and R.K. Stocker. 2008. IFAS Assessment of Non-Native Plants in Florida’s Natural Areas: Status Assessment. Cited from the Internet (November 16, 2012), http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/assessment/pdfs/status_assessment.pdf

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH-563, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture,UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 1993. Revised February 2013. Reviewed June 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Edward F. Gilman, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department; Dennis G. Watson, former associate professor, Agricultural Engineering Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville FL 32611.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.