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Publication #ENY-033

Non-Fumigant Nematicides Registered for Vegetable Crop Use1

T. T. Watson and J. A. Desaeger2

Non-Fumigant Nematicides

Non-fumigant nematicides are formulated as liquids or water-soluble granules that are moved through the soil by water. Many of these products must be incorporated with soil or carried by water to be effective because they often inhibit nematodes through direct contact. Conversely, some non-fumigant nematicides are systemic (example: Vydate), meaning that the active ingredient is taken up by the plant and translocated to other parts of the plant. Nevertheless, most systemic nematicides, such as Vydate, are thought to primarily inhibit nematode damage through direct contact with the nematode in the soil profile, emphasizing the importance of adequate application uniformity to attain effective management. Generally, non-fumigant nematicides have a narrower spectrum of activity relative to that of soil fumigants, often preserving beneficial soil organisms responsible for essential soil ecosystem functioning, including nutrient cycling and natural regulation of pathogens and pests. Non-fumigant nematicides can be subdivided into two broad categories, chemical non-fumigant nematicides and biological non-fumigant nematicides.

Chemical Nematicides

Chemical nematicides inhibit nematodes through the action of synthetic compounds. Such nematicides can be divided into three different pesticide classes: carbamates, organophosphates, and 3-fluorine nematicides. Table 1 lists characteristics of active ingredients in chemical nematicides. Table 2 lists chemical nematicides currently registered for use in Florida on specific vegetable crops.

Carbamate

Carbamate nematicides available for vegetable production include Vydate L (Corteva Agriscience; active ingredient: oxamyl) and Vydate C-LV (Corteva Agriscience; active ingredient: oxamyl). These products are restricted-use pesticides and have a high level of toxicity towards non-target organisms (Gallego et al. 2019).

Organophosphate

Organophosphate nematicides available for vegetable production include MOCAP 15G (AMVAC Chemical Corporation; active ingredient: ethoprop), MOCAP EC (AMVAC Chemical Corporation; active ingredient: ethoprop) and Counter 20G (AMVAC Chemical Corporation; active ingredient: terbufos). These products are restricted-use pesticides and have a high level of toxicity towards non-target organisms.

3-Fluorine

Three-fluorine nematicides are a relatively new class of reduced-risk pesticides available to vegetable producers and include products such as Nimitz (ADAMA Agricultural Solutions; active ingredient: fluensulfone) and Velum Prime (Bayer Crop Science; active ingredient: fluopyram). These products are safer to apply than carbamate and organophosphate nematicides and have significantly less toxicity towards most non-target organisms; however, fluopyram has been shown to reduce beneficial nematode populations densities in soil (Waldo et al. 2019).

Biological Nematicides

Biological nematicides inhibit nematodes through the use of natural compounds produced by microorganisms and plants. Such nematicides can be divided into microbe-based nematicides and plant-based nematicides. Table 3 lists biological nematicides currently registered for use in Florida on specific vegetable crops.

Microbe-Based

Microbe-based nematicides use the activity of microorganisms to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Products such as Majestene (Marrone Bio Innovations; active ingredient: heat-killed Burkholderia rinojensis strain A396) use a suspension of secondary metabolites produced by an antagonistic soil bacterium. Other products, such as MeloCon WG (Certis USA; active ingredient: Purpureocillium lilacinus strain 251) use live organisms that suppress hatching of nematode eggs.

Plant-Based

Plant-based nematicides use the activity of a diverse range of natural compounds produced by plants to suppress nematodes. This includes products such as Dazitol (Champon Millennium Chemicals Inc.; active ingredients: capsaicin and essential oil of mustard) and NemaKill (Excel Ag, Corp.; active ingredients: cinnamon oil, clove oil, and thyme oil).

Summary

Non-fumigant nematicides available for vegetable production in Florida include two broad categories, chemical nematicides and biological nematicides. Chemical nematicides can be divided into three pesticide classes: carbamates, organophosphates, and 3-fluorine nematicides. Biological nematicides include both microbe-based and plant-based products. Refer to EDIS publication ENY-065, Fumigant and Non-fumigant Nematicides labeled for Agronomic Crops in Florida (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in395) for a list of nematicides registered for use on row crops in Florida. Refer to EDIS publication ENY-012, Soil-Inhabiting Nematodes, Phylum Nematoda (https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/in138) for more information on nematode biology. For further information on nematode management, go to the Florida Nematode Management Guide (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_nematode_management).

References

Gallego, S., M. Devers-Lamrani, K. Rousidou, D. G. Karpouzas, and F. Martin-Laurent. 2019. "Assessment of the effects of oxamyl on the bacterial community of an agricultural soil exhibiting enhanced biodegradation." Sci. Total Environ. 651: 1189–1198.

Waldo, B. D., Z. J. Grabau, T. M. Mengistu, and W. T. Crow. 2019. "Nematicide effects on non-target nematodes in bermudagrass." J. Nematol. 51: 1–12.

Tables

Table 1. 

Characteristics of chemical nematicides registered for vegetable crop use.

Active Ingredient

Trade Name(s)

Class

Systemic

Water Solubility

Mode of Action

Ethoprop

Mocap 15G, Mocap EC

Organophosphate

No

1,300 ppm

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

Terbufos

Counter 20G

Organophosphate

Yes

5 ppm

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

Oxamyl

Vydate L, Vydate C-LV

Carbamate

Yes

150,000 ppm

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor

Fluensulfone

Nimitz

3-Fluorine

Yes

545 ppm

Unknown

Fluopyram

Velum Prime, Velum Total

3-Fluorine

Yes

16 ppm

Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor

Table 2. 

Chemical nematicides registered for specific vegetable crop use.

Vegetable

Chemical Nematicide

MOCAP 15G

MOCAP EC

COUNTER 20G

VYDATE L

VYDATE C-LV

NIMITZ

VELUM PRIME

Beans

yes

           

Carrots

     

yes

 

yes

 

Celery

     

yes

 

yes

 

Corn, sweet

yes

 

yes

       

Cabbage

yes

       

yes

yes

Brussels sprouts

         

yes

yes

Broccoli

         

yes

yes

Cauliflower

         

yes

yes

Cucumber

yes

   

yes

 

yes

yes

Melons

     

yes

 

yes

yes

Leafy vegetables

         

yes

yes

Squash

     

yes

 

yes

yes

Okra

         

yes

yes

Potatoes

yes

yes

   

yes

yes

yes

Potatoes, sweet

yes

yes

 

yes

 

yes

yes

Eggplant

     

yes

 

yes

yes

Strawberry

         

yes

yes

Tomato

     

yes

 

yes

yes

Pepper

     

yes

 

yes

yes

Table 3. 

Biological nematicides available for specific vegetable crop use.

Vegetable

Biological Nematicide

Majestene

MeloCon WG

Dazitol

NemaKill

Beans

   

yes

yes

Carrots

yes

yes

yes

yes

Celery

yes

yes

yes

yes

Corn, sweet

yes

 

yes

yes

Cabbage

yes

yes

yes

yes

Brussels sprouts

yes

yes

yes

yes

Broccoli

yes

yes

yes

yes

Cauliflower

yes

yes

yes

yes

Cucumber

yes

yes

yes

yes

Melons

yes

yes

yes

yes

Leafy vegetables

yes

yes

yes

yes

Squash

yes

yes

yes

yes

Okra

yes

yes

yes

yes

Potatoes

yes

yes

yes

yes

Potatoes, sweet

yes

yes

yes

yes

Eggplant

yes

yes

yes

yes

Strawberry

yes

yes

yes

yes

Tomato

yes

yes

yes

yes

Pepper

yes

yes

yes

yes

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENY-033, one of a series of the Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date March 1999. Revised December 2012, December 2015, and April 2019. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

T. T. Watson, postdoctoral research associate, Entomology and Nematology Department; and J. A. Desaeger, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department; UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center, Wimuama, FL 33598.


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U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.