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Publication #RFAC018

Alternative Opportunities for Small Farms: Peach and Nectarine Production Review1

Mercy Olmstead, Jeff Williamson, Jose Chaparro, and Tim Crocker2

Florida's mild winter climate and early spring season offer unique opportunities for early-season peach and nectarine production. Currently, Florida produces some of the earliest commercial-quality peaches and nectarines in North America (Figure 1). For example, 'UFBest', which is adapted to Central and South Central Florida, has a fruit development period (FDP) from bloom to harvest of approximately 75 days. When grown in South Central Florida, it ripens in early April and is one of the first commercial peaches to ripen in North America. It is followed closely in ripening sequence by several other peach and nectarine cultivars adapted from South Central to North Florida. During the last 10 years, many new peach and nectarine cultivars have been released by the University of Florida. These new, improved cultivars have increased the potential for expansion of commercial peach and nectarine acreage throughout much of the Florida peninsula and along the Gulf Coast regions of the southeastern United States.

Figure 1. 

'TropicBeauty' peach

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Chilling Requirement

Peaches and nectarines are temperate-zone trees that require a minimum amount of accumulated cool temperature exposure (between 32°F and 45°F) to resume normal growth the following spring. This is referred to as the cultivar's chilling requirement (Sharpe, Sherman, and Martsolf 1990; Sherman and Rodriguez-Alcazar 1987; Richardson, Seeley, and Walker 1974). The chilling requirement is usually expressed in chill units (cu). Each cultivar has its own characteristic chilling requirement, which partially determines its adaptability to a certain region of the state. The importance of proper site and cultivar selection must be emphasized. For example, 'Gulfking' (350 cu) is adapted to the Gainesville area but would not receive sufficient chilling most winters to grow well south of Ocala (Figure 2). Conversely, if the cultivar's chilling requirement is too low for the area where it is planted, there is a greater chance of late-winter frosts killing blossoms and young fruit. More peaches and nectarines are lost to frost damage in the southeastern United States than to any other single cause.

Figure 2. 

Chill units accumulated (between 32°F and 45°F) through February 10 in 75% of winters

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Peaches and nectarines should only be planted on sites with excellent air drainage to reduce the risk of frost damage to flowers. Cold air is denser and sinks to the lowest spot in the orchard, especially on nights with radiation freezes. Radiation freezes occur on clear nights with calm wind conditions, where warm air rises as the cold air sinks. An advective freeze is dominated by windy conditions and often results in severe damage to the flowers and potential fruit. On a good site, select cultivars with chilling requirements slightly less than the average chilling received in that location. This helps ensure adequate chilling during unusually warm winters; if the site has excellent air drainage, the risks of flower damage from spring freezes will be minimal during normal and high-chill years.

Marketing Situation

The incentives for growing peaches and nectarines in Florida are 1) production and marketing of fresh Florida peaches and nectarines before central Georgia, South Carolina, and California enter the market, and 2) production of quality fruit when there are almost no other quality fresh fruit of any kind available (Figure 3). Peaches and nectarines can be produced continuously from early April until late May or early June in Florida, depending on weather. As precipitation increases during the summer months, disease and pest problems on peaches and nectarines also increase. Later-maturing cultivars have little or no potential in Florida because of increased pest and disease pressure and increased market competition.

To market high-quality peaches, it is necessary to harvest each cultivar three to four times at two-day intervals in order to obtain fruit that are "tree ripe." For long-distance shipment, fruit must be carefully handled, graded, sized, cooled, and packed. This requires a sizeable investment in a packinghouse, which is not likely to prove economically feasible with much less than 100–150 acres. However, marketing alternatives for smaller growers include joining a grower cooperative, making direct sales to grocery stores or produce markets, and opting for U-pick, farmers markets, or roadside stand operations. It is important to grow several cultivars that ripen in succession to ensure a steady flow of ripe fruit. This longer harvest period helps with marketing and efficient use of harvest labor and packing facilities.

Figure 3. 

Average monthly imports of peaches and nectarines (1997–2009). Source:  Economic Research Service, USDA-ARS

[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Commercial peach and nectarine operations in the southeastern United States can have preharvest production costs of about $3,000 per acre and harvest and marketing costs of about $6,000, for a total per acre cost of about $9,000 (Morgan et al. 2010, M. Olmstead pers. comm.). These initial costs vary if the land is already purchased and irrigation is available from a previous crop. Because marketing costs for commercial orchards are relatively high, U-pick operations have the potential of greatly reducing total costs. Estimated returns (gross) to peach growers in Florida are approximately four to five times greater than those of growers in surrounding southeastern states (United States Agricultural Statistics Board 2011).


Peach and nectarine production requires high levels of seasonal hand labor. Commercial growers hire labor for dormant and summer pruning, fruit thinning, and harvesting. Family operations often supply their own labor. Timing of labor operations is especially critical; often a delay of a few days in harvesting can result in profit loss.

Planting Guidelines

Site selection and cultivar choice rank as the two most important factors in successful peach and nectarine growing. When selecting a site, avoid low areas characterized by late spring frosts. Even in Central Florida, freezes can occur throughout February and early March in cold locations; thus, sites with good air drainage are essential for reliable production. Peaches and nectarines can be grown on a wide variety of soils, provided they are well drained in the upper 4–6 feet of soil. Avoid "hardpan" soils unless an excellent system of subsoil drainage tiles or bedded systems are provided. Irrigation is required for tree growth and throughout the fruit development period to obtain acceptable fruit size and yields. A properly designed overhead sprinkler irrigation system has the added advantage of protecting flowers and young fruit from late winter and spring freezes. For low-volume irrigation systems, microsprinklers are preferred to drip emitters.

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica) are common in Florida soils and can negatively impact the health of peach and nectarine trees. In addition, the newly identified peach root-knot nematode, M. floridensis (Handoo et al. 2004), can infect common peach rootstocks such as 'Nemaguard' and 'Okinawa'. Therefore, only a M. floridensis root-knot nematode-resistant rootstock such as 'Flordaguard' should be used in Florida (Sherman, Lyrene, and Sharpe 1991). June-budded trees that are 2 ½–4 feet high are a good size to plant during the fall season, while larger sizes are more difficult to handle and expensive. Normal tree spacing is 15 x 20 feet, or 145 trees per acre. On lighter soils, higher density plantings have been satisfactory (Table 1). All Florida peach and nectarine cultivars are self-fruitful and should be planted in solid blocks for easier spraying and harvesting.

Table 1. 

Various tree and row spacing for orchard establishment

Spacing between trees (feet)

Spacing between rows (feet)

Total trees/acre













Cultural Program

Growing peaches and nectarines requires a high level of skilled management, which includes pruning, fruit thinning, harvesting, and scouting for pests and diseases. Peaches and nectarines are susceptible to a number of pests, including diseases, insects, and nematodes. An integrated pest management program must be followed to ensure good fruit quality. Although some diseases and insects can be severe, they can usually be controlled with a proper pest management program. A disease and pest management guide is available online at More information is available on the University of Florida Stone Fruit website ( and from your local county Extension office.


Handoo, Z. A., A. P. Nyczepir, D. Esmenjaud, J. G. van der Beek, P. Castagnone-Sereno, L. K. Carta, A. M. Skantar, and J. A. Higgins. 2004. "Morphological, Molecular, and Differential-Host Characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. Sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Peach in Florida." Journal of Nematology 36 (1):20–35.

Morgan, K., J. Braswell, F. Matta, D. Ingram, and B. Layton. 2010. Peach - Fruit and Nut Planning Budgets. Starkeville: Mississippi State University.

Richardson, E. A., S. D. Seeley, and D. R. Walker. 1974. "A Model for Estimating the Completion of Rest for 'Redhaven' and 'Elberta' Peach Trees." HortScience 9 (4):331–332.

Sharpe, R. H., W. B. Sherman, and J. D. Martsolf. 1990. "Peach Cultivars in Florida and Their Chilling Requirements." Acta Horticulturae 279:191–197.

Sherman, W. B., and J. Rodriguez-Alcazar. 1987. "Breeding of Low-Chill Peach and Nectarines for Mild Winters." HortScience 22:1233–1236.

Sherman, W. B., P. M. Lyrene, and R. H. Sharpe. 1991. "'Flordaguard' Peach Rootstock." HortScience 26 (4):427–428.

United States Agricultural Statistics Board. 2011. "Noncitrus Fruits and Nuts 2010 Summary." National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), Agricultural Statistics Board, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. [April 2012].



This document is RFAC018, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date May 1987. Revised September 2011. Reviewed August2014. Visit the EDIS website at


Mercy Olmstead, Extension specialist and assistant professor; Jeff Williamson, Extension specialist and professor; and Jose Chaparro, stone fruit breeder and associate professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Tim Crocker, retired Extension specialist, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611

The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.