Violet Biology and Management in Turf1

Darcy E. P. Telenko, Barry J. Brecke, Ramon Leon, and J. Bryan Unruh 2

Violets (Viola spp.) are diverse winter annuals and perennials. Perennials form rhizomes or long stolons. Many have heart-shaped leaves on long petioles and have a rosette growth habit. Some have linear leaves and others have palmate leaves. Flowers are generally purple, but can be white, pink or yellow. They reproduce by seed or, when produced, rhizomes.

Figure 1. Violet in grass
Figure 1.  Violet in grass
Credit: Creative Commons BY-NC: withrow

Herbicide Options for Controlling Violets in Florida Turfgrass

(Always refer to the label for specific uses, application rates, and turfgrass tolerance.)

Refer to the publication Pest Control Guide for Turfgrass Managers at http://turf.ufl.edu/pdf/2012_UF_Pest_Control_Guide.pdf for brand names associated with chemical names listed.

Bermudagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

St. Augustinegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba (follow label recomendations to minimize turf injury), dicamba sulfentrazone

Centipedegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone

Bahiagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

Seashore Paspalum

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, sulfentrazone

Zoysiagrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, triclopyr+clopyralid, trifloxysulfuron

Perennial Ryegrass

  • Preemergence: none

  • Postemergence: carfentrazone, 2,4-D+dicamba, dicamba, sulfentrazone, triclopyr +clopyralid

Footnotes

1. This document is ENH1235, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date November 2013. Reviewed October 2016. Revised November 2019. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. Adapted from: Tim R. Murphy, Daniel L. Colvin, Ray Dickens, John W. Everest, David Hall, and L.B. McCarty. Weeds of Southern Turfgrasses. University of Florida, 1992.
2. Darcy E. P. Telenko, postdoctoral research associate; Barry J. Brecke, professor; Ramon Leon, assistant professor, Agronomy Department; and J. Bryan Unruh, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, West Florida Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.