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Chapter 7. Cucurbit Production

Josh H. Freeman, Eugene J. McAvoy, Craig Frey, Nathan S. Boyd, Mathews L. Paret, Qingren Wang, Johan Desaeger, Jawwad Qureshi, Xavier Martini, and Phillip B. Williams

Botany and Planting

Angled or ridged luffa (silk squash, Chinese okra)—Luffa acutangula

Bittermelon (Chinese and Indian types)—Momordica charantia

Butternut squashCucurbita moschata

CantaloupeCucumis melo

ChayoteSechium edule

Chinese cucumberTrichosanthes kirilowii

CucumberCucumis sativus, Cucurbitaceae

Fuzzy melon (immature fruit) and Winter melonBenincasa hispida

Long gourd (oopoh)—Lagenaria siceraria

Pumpkin (jack-o-lantern is C. pepo; some processing pumpkins are C. maxima and C. moschata)

Smooth luffaLuffa aegyptica (cylindrical)

Snake gourdTrichosanthes cucumerina

Summer squash (crookneck and straight-neck yellow squash)—Cucurbita pepo

Tropical pumpkin (calabaza)Cucurbita moschata

WatermelonCitrullus lanatus

Winter squashCucurbita maxima

ZucchiniCucurbita pepo



Table 7.1. Planting information for cucurbits.


 Table 7.2. Cultivars for cantaloupe.


Table 7.3. Cultivars for cucumber.


Table 7.4. Cultivars for Halloween pumpkin (north Florida only).


Table 7.5. Cultivars for squash.


Table 7.6. Cultivars for watermelon.

Asian Cucurbits

This group includes cucurbit fruits that can be eaten immature like several other vegetables with edible tender stems and leaves. Matured luffa are not edible, but after peeling off their skin and drying them, they can be used as durable scrubs for dishwashing or showering. All these Asian cucurbits can be grown on raised beds, with or without plastic mulch, and with drip, overhead, or subsurface irrigation. Most of them are well trellised to support the long vines and fruits, primarily to maximize space and sufficient sunlight, to minimize bud drop and fruit rot caused by overshading and exposure to soil moisture and pathogens, and to promote straight fruit. Winter melon is the exception because it is generally too heavy to trellis. Fertilizer recommendations for cucumbers are applicable for fuzzy melon, long gourd, both luffas, Chinese cucumber, bittermelon, and snake gourd. There are two types of bittermelon: Indian and Chinese. The Indian type has smaller fruit with dark-green color and soft, prickled skin, and the Chinese type has longer, larger fruit with light-green color and smooth skin. The Indian type tastes more bitter than the Chinese type. Chinese cucumber, though rarely commercially available, has fruit more than 1 foot long with dark-green color, very thin and rough skin, and crisp texture, similar to European cucumber, but crunchier. Recommendations for watermelon should be followed for winter melon and chayote. With the exception of chayote, where the entire fruit is planted, these crops are started from seed and grown as transplants prior to being set in the field.


Table 7.7. Planting information for Asian cucurbits.


Table 7.8. Cultivars for Asian cucurbits.

Table 7.9. Herbicides approved for managing weeds in cucurbit crops.


Table 7.10. Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of cucurbit crops.


Table 7.11. Cucurbit fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.


Table 7.12. Nonfumigant nematicides for cucurbit crops in Florida.


Table 7.13. Fumigant nematicides for cucurbit crops in Florida.


Publication #HS725

Date: 8/16/2021


About this Publication

This document is HS725, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 1995. Revised May 2021. Visit the EDIS website at for the currently supported version of this publication.

About the Authors

Josh H. Freeman, associate professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS North Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy; Eugene J. McAvoy, Extension agent IV emeritus, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida REC; Craig Frey, county Extension director and Extension agent II, UF/IFAS Extension Hendry County; Nathan S. Boyd, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Mathews Paret, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS North Florida REC, Quincy; Qingren Wang, Extension agent III, UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Jawwad Qureshi, associate professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida REC; Xavier Martini, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS North Florida REC, Quincy; and Phillip B. Williams, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida REC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


  • Joshua Freeman