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Publication #ENH1191

South Florida Gardening Calendar1

Sydney Park Brown2

January

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Plants that can be added to the garden during the coolest months include begonia, browallia, lobelia, dianthus, dusty miller, and nicotiana. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Winter is a great time to plant bulbs that will bloom in the spring. Some examples include Clivia lily, crinum, and agapanthus. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Many herbs will thrive now that temperatures are cooler, including tarragon, thyme, dill, fennel, and any of the mints. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Many vegetables can be planted this time of year. This the last month to plant Irish potatoes, beets, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, mustard, and turnips. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Landscape: It is a good time to plant woody shrubs. Water frequently to get new plantings off to a good start. See The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_shrubs

Irrigation: Water plants if temperatures remain higher than normal and rainfall is scarce. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Shrubs and trees: Prune non-spring flowering shrubs and trees this month to improve form. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Arbor Day: Celebrate Florida Arbor Day (the 3rd Friday of January) by planting a tree in your yard or community. See Arbor Day in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_arbor_day

Crapemyrtle: Remove seed pods, crossing branches, and small twiggy growth to improve the appearance and form of the plant, if desired. Hard pruning is not required. See Crapemyrtle: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_crapemyrtle

Cold protection: Bring sensitive plants like orchids inside if a frost or freeze is predicted. Thoroughly water and cover sensitive plants in the landscape 12–24 hours before a freeze. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

Pests: Apply horticultural oil to citrus, shrubs, and deciduous fruit trees while plants are dormant to control scale. Apply copper spray to mangos after bloom. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Figure 1. 

Cattleya orchid


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Thomas Wright


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

February

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Good performers in South Florida's mild winter include impatiens, verbena, dianthus, strawflower, and lobelia. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Many bulbs can be planted now. Divide large, crowded clumps. Provide adequate water for establishment. Some examples include Amazon lily, crinum, and agapanthus. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Groundcovers: Consider replacing areas of grass with drought-tolerant, low-maintenance groundcovers. See The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf and Ground Covers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ground_covers

Vegetables: Winter vegetable gardening is in full swing. Last month to plant cantaloupes, cucumbers, eggplant, lettuce, peppers, spinach, and tomatoes for a late spring harvest. Protect crops in the unlikely event of a frost or freeze. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 2. 

Eggplant


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Lawns: Fertilize lawn grasses to improve color or coverage. Choose a fertilizer (not a "weed and feed") with no or very little phosphorus unless a soil test indicates the need for it. A fertilizer with controlled-release nitrogen provides longer-lasting results. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Roses: Prune roses this month to remove damaged canes and improve the overall form. After pruning, fertilize and apply a fresh layer of mulch. Blooming will begin 8–9 weeks after pruning. See Roses: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_rose

Shrubs and palms: Fertilize shrubs and palms by spreading fertilizer evenly over the soil surface and watering it in. Follow with a fresh layer of mulch to conserve moisture and reduce weeds. Delay pruning any cold-damaged branches until new growth starts. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition and Landscape Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_fertilization

Lawns: Apply a preemergence weed killer (not a "weed and feed") to lawns late this month to prevent germination of warm-season weed seeds. Apply when temperatures rise to 65°F for 4–5 days. Timing is important for good control. See Lawn Weeds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_weeds

Avocados and mangos: Disease-susceptible varieties of avocado and mango may require applications of copper fungicide. See Avocado: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_avocado and Mango: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mango

Citrus: Fertilize now if not done in January. Frequency and amount of fertilization depend on the age of the tree. See Home Citrus Culture: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_citrus_home_citrus_culture

March

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: Plant heat-tolerant annuals, such as crossandra, gazania, melampodium, and zinnia that will last into fall. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Plant gladiola corms 6 inches apart and 4 inches deep; stake as they grow. Plant caladium for a showy tropical display all summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: In addition to their culinary value, many herbs are ornamental and attract butterflies to the garden. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: This is the last month to plant arugula, beans, cantaloupe, carrots, celery sweet corn, endive, okra, radish, squashes, Swiss chard, and watermelon. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 3. 

Caladium


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Shrubs and trees: Prune when new growth begins after the end of the dormant season. To guard next season's blooms, begin pruning after the last flowers fade but before the new buds set. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Mulch: Add mulch to minimize weeds and conserve moisture during dry weather. See Landscape Mulches: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mulch

Lawns: Fertilize lawns this month if not done in February. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Pests: Monitor landscape plants for insects, especially for the presence of aphids on tender new growth. Insects become more active during warm weather. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Fertilize: Fertilize palms and ornamental shrubs if not done last month. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition and Landscape Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_fertilization

Lawns: Identify damaging insects and spot treat early to prevent widespread damage. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Tropical and subtropical fruits: Add variety and interest to the landscape and table with exotic fruits. See Tropical Fruit for the Home Landscape: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_tropical_fruit

April

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Plant heat-tolerant annuals, such as coleus, vinca, and portulaca. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Cannas thrive in the heat of summer. New varieties have colorful leaves as well as flowers. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Some to start now include basil, coriander, cumin, and mint. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Beans, Chinese cabbage, Southern peas, and sweet potatoes can still be planted. Mulch beds well and monitor irrigation if the weather is dry. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 4. 

Lady beetle


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Marisol Amidor


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Pests: Monitor insect activity and learn which bugs damage plants and which do not. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Beneficials: Identify and conserve beneficial insects. Some insects should be encouraged in your yard! See Beneficial Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_beneficial_insects

Tomatoes: Watch for pests, disease, and nutritional disorders on developing tomato plants. See Home Tomato Gardening: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tomato_gardening

Palms: Identify and treat environmental and nutritional disorders in palm trees. See Palm Care: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_care

Oleanders: Inspect chewed or ragged leaves for oleander caterpillars at work. See Oleander Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_oleander_ipm

Fruits: Propagate fruit crops by air layering and grafting. See Propagating Fruits in Florida: http://www.solutionsforyourlife.com/hot_topics/lawn_and_garden/propagating_fruits.shtml

Perennials and bulbs: Divide clumps of bulbs, ornamental grasses, or herbaceous perennials to expand or rejuvenate garden beds or to pass along to friends. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers and Perennial Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_perennials

Shrubs: Choose from a wide variety of shrubs to add to the landscape now. See The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_shrubs

May

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Plants that can take summer heat include coleus, salvia, torenia, wax begonia, and ornamental pepper. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Some lilies do better when their roots are crowded. Try planting Amazon, Aztec, and Clivia lilies in containers to increase blooming. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Plant heat-loving herbs, including basil, Mexican tarragon, ginger, cumin, summer savory, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Sweet potatoes, boniato, hot peppers, and tropical “spinach” such as Sisso, Malabar, and New Zealand can be planted now. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 5. 

Canna


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Pests: Watch for thrips, scale, and mites on ornamental plants because they become more active in warm weather. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Gardenias and ixora: Distinguish between the normal yellowing of older leaves and the yellowing of new growth, which usually indicates a micronutrient deficiency. See Nutrient Deficiency (Landscape Plants): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_nutrient_deficiencies_landscape_plants and Gardenias at a Glance: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep338

Oleanders: Inspect chewed or ragged leaves for oleander caterpillars at work. See Oleander Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_oleander_ipm

Lawns: Watch for damage from chinch bugs in St. Augustinegrass and begin scouting for newly hatched mole crickets in bahiagrass lawns. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Tomatoes: Watch for pests, disease, and nutritional disorders on tomato plants. See Home Tomato Gardening: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tomato_gardening

Trees: Prepare for hurricane season by checking trees for damaged or weak branches and prune if needed. Hire an ISA-certified arborist. See International Society of Arboriculture: http://isa-arbor.com/ and Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Lawns: Prevent or minimize disease by following proper cultural practices when caring for lawns. See Turf Diseases: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_diseases

June

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: Annuals that can take full sun during the increasingly hot summer months include celosia, portulaca, vinca, and some coleus. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Palms: Summer's warm, rainy months are the perfect time to plant palms. Make sure not to cover the trunk with soil. See Palms: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palms

Herbs: Plant heat-loving herbs, including basil, ginger, summer savory, cumin, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Plant tropical vegetables, such as boniato, calabaza, and chayote this month. See South Florida Tropicals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_series_south_florida_tropicals and Chayote: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_chayote

Figure 6. 

Vinca


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Pests: Monitor the landscape and garden weekly for harmful insects. Knowing which insects attack a plant can aid in identification and treatment. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Irrigation: Watch for drought stress and water as needed if rainfall has been spotty. Focus on new plantings and follow watering restrictions. When rains begin, shut down the irrigation system. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Propagation: Produce more plants by air layering, grafting, division, or cuttings. See Seeds and Propagation (Lawn and Garden): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_propagation

Palms and cycads: Watch for nutrient deficiencies or other problems and use an appropriate treatment. See Palm Care: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_care

Pruning: Lightly prune summer-flowering shrubs, like hibiscus, oleander, and ixora, during the warmer months to increase blooming. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Fertilizer Bans: Numerous municipalities in south Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Lawns: Check frequently for damaged areas and keep insects in check with early treatment. Determine whether yellow and brown lawn patches are caused by chinch bugs, disease, or lack of water. Take time to determine the cause so your remedy is effective. Rejuvenate areas where grass does not grow well by replacing it with versatile groundcovers. See Garden Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_pest_insects, The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf, and Ground Covers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ground_covers. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Soil solarization: Clean up your vegetable garden and solarize the soil for 4–6 weeks to kill pests and disease. See Soil Solarization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_soil_solarization

Lightning safety: Be safe outdoors during storm season.

July

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Summer annuals to plant now include celosia, coleus, torenia, and ornamental pepper. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Butterfly lily and gladiolus are bulbs that can be planted during the middle of summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: While summer is too hot to start herbs from seeds, many, such as oregano and mint, do well if started from small plants. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Plant tropical vegetables, such as boniato, calabaza, and chayote this month. See South Florida Tropicals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_series_south_florida_tropicals and Chayote: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_chayote

Palms: Continue planting palms while the rainy season is in full swing. Support large palms with braces for 6–8 months after planting. Do not drive nails directly into a palm trunk. See Palms: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palms

Figure 7. 

Oranges


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Thomas Wright


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Trees: Prepare for hurricane season by checking trees for damaged or weak branches and pruning if needed. Hire an ISA-certified arborist. See International Society of Arboriculture: http://isa-arbor.com/ and Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Lawns: Determine the cause of any lawn problems before taking action. If an insect is the culprit, treat only the affected area. Rule out disease or sprinkler malfunction. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Fertilizer Bans: Numerous municipalities in south Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Vegetable garden: Use summer heat to solarize the vegetable garden for fall planting. It takes 4–6 weeks to kill weeds, disease, and nematodes, so start now. See Soil Solarization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_soil_solarization

Irrigation: Install an inexpensive rain shutoff device to save money by overriding an irrigation system when it rains. If one is already installed, check that it is operating properly. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Pests on ornamental plants: Inspect the leaves of ornamental plants for small white dots that may indicate lace bugs at work. Spray forcefully with water to help control this pest. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests and Landscape Lace Bug Pests: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_lace_bug_pests

Tropical fruit trees: Check for damage to fruit or leaves and take action to minimize the effect of insects and/or disease on developing fruit or the overall health of the tree. See Tropical Fruit: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tropical_fruit

August

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: The hottest days of summer limit planting to heat-tolerant vinca, coleus, salvia, and celosia. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Aztec lily, butterfly lily, walking iris, and spider lily can be planted any time of the year, even late summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Herbs that can be planted from plants (not seeds) include bay laurel, ginger, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Start planting eggplant, okra, peppers, pumpkin, squashes, and tomatoes for the fall garden. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 8. 

Mexican sage


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Palms: Check older fronds for yellowing as it may indicate a magnesium or potassium deficiency. Apply an appropriate palm fertilizer. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition

Vegetables: Solarize the vegetable garden for 4–6 weeks in preparation for fall planting if not done in July. See Soil Solarization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_soil_solarization

Poinsettias: Pinch back poinsettias and mums before the end of the month to allow time for buds to form for winter bloom. See Poinsettias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_poinsettia

Ornamental plants: Fertilize those plants that show signs of deficiencies. Rapid growth and leaching rains may result in nutrient deficiencies in some plants. See Nutrient Deficiencies (Landscape Plants): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_nutrient_deficiencies_landscape_plants and Landscape Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_fertilization

Fertilizer Bans: Numerous municipalities in south Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Annuals/Bedding plants: Remove spent blooms, cut back, and fertilize flowering annuals and perennials to extend the bloom season into the fall months. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants and Perennial Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_perennials

September

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: If summer beds need refreshing, try scarlet sage, nasturtium, celosia, and wax begonia for color into fall. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Plant gladiolus every 2 weeks to stagger blooming. Stake each plant. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Plant herbs that tolerate the warm temperatures of early fall, such as Mexican tarragon, mint, rosemary, and basil. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: September opens the door for more vegetables to plant. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Shrubs: Consider placing native shrubs, like beautyberry, marlberry, firebush, and dahoon holly, where you can view the birds that enjoy them. See The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_shrubs

Figure 9. 

Cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Lawns: Continue to monitor the lawn for signs of insect damage. Fall armyworms, chinch bugs, mole crickets, and sod webworms are still active this month. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Fertilizer Bans: Numerous municipalities in south Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Vegetable gardens: Prepare the fall vegetable garden if not done in August. Using transplants from your local garden center will get the garden off to a fast start, but seeds provide a wider variety from which to choose. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Perennials and bulbs: Divide and replant perennials and bulbs that have grown too large or need rejuvenation. Add organic matter to planting beds and monitor water needs during establishment. See Seeds and Propagation (Lawn and Garden): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_propagation

Irrigation: Check that irrigation systems are providing good coverage and operating properly before summer rains taper off. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Citrus: Fertilize citrus with a balanced fertilizer either this month or in October. Use controlled-release nitrogen because rain will not leach it from the soil too quickly. See Home Citrus Culture: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_citrus_home_citrus_culture

October

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Even though temperatures are still warm, begin planting for the cooler months ahead. Impatiens, alyssum, and dianthus are good plants for the fall/winter garden. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Plant agapanthus, rain lily, and Clivia lily now for blooms next spring or summer. Add organic matter to the planting bed for best results. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: A wide range of herbs can be planted from seed or transplants this month. Some to try include dill, fennel, parsley, and cilantro. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Easy crops that can be grown now include beans, broccoli, carrots, collards, lettuce, green onions, peppers, radishes, spinach, and tomatoes. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 10. 

Strawberries


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Lawns: Control winter weeds in lawns before they appear. Preemergence herbicides must be applied at the right time to be effective. Apply when nighttime temperatures are 55°F–60°F for 4–5 days. See Lawn Weeds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_weeds

Ornamental trees and shrubs: Fertilize plants that are not performing as desired. This is the last month of the year to fertilize shrubs and trees. Controlled-release fertilizer provides nutrients over a longer period of time. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition and Landscape Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_fertilization

Lawn fertilization: Fertilize lawns if needed. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Strawberries: Prepare beds and set strawberry plants this month. Strawberries also make a colorful and tasty container planting. Either way, water daily until plants are established. See Strawberries: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_strawberries

Palms: Palms have unique nutritional needs. Select a fertilizer that contains controlled release nitrogen, potassium and magnesium. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition

Oleanders: Control the oleander caterpillar, which is a year-round resident in South Florida, without harming beneficial insects by pruning off infested leaves or spraying with BT (Bacillus thuringiensis). See Oleander Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_oleander_ipm

Twig girdlers: Control twig girdlers by cleaning up and destroying fallen branches that young twig girdlers can use for harborage. See Twig Girdlers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_twig_girdlers

November

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Create a display of fall colors with cool-season plants. Some examples include impatiens, strawflower, cape daisy, and pansy. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Many bulbs like to get their start in cool weather. Bulbs to plant this month include amaryllis, crinum, and the many varieties of elephant's ear. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Continue planting herbs from seeds or plants. A wide variety of herbs like cooler, dryer weather, including cilantro, dill, fennel, parsley, sage, and thyme. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Lots of choices exist for November including beans, broccoli, kale, snow/English peas, and strawberries. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 11. 

Hydroponic lettuce and herbs


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Perennials: Divide and replant overgrown perennials and bulbs now so that they establish before the coolest weather arrives. See Seeds and Propagation (Lawn and Garden): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_propagation

Lawns: Watch for brown patch and large patch until May. These fungal diseases cause areas of grass to turn brown. Since treatment is difficult, prevention with proper cultural practices is key. See Turf Diseases: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_diseases

Scale insects: Take advantage of lower temperatures to apply horticultural oil sprays to control scale insects. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Irrigation: Turn off systems and water only if needed. Plants need less supplemental watering in cooler weather. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Poinsettias: Watch for hornworms on poinsettias planted in the landscape. This pest can quickly defoliate a plant. Handpick or treat only the infested area. See Poinsettias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_poinsettia

December

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: To add color to the winter garden, plant masses of begonia, impatiens, and geranium. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Amaryllis is a popular plant for the holiday season. It can be forced to bloom now or planted outdoors for spring blooms. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Plant herbs that thrive in cool weather. Some examples include parsley, thyme, sage, dill, fennel, and cilantro. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Reliable cool-season vegetables to plant this month include broccoli, carrots, kale, green onions, and others. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 12. 

Poinsettia


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Poinsettias: Enjoy one of the most popular holiday plants. Protect it from cold until spring, and then plant it in the garden for next year. See Poinsettias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_poinsettia

Irrigation: Irrigate if the weather has been warm and dry. Monitor plants for signs of stress and water only as needed. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Lawns: Continue monitoring for brown patch and large patch fungal disease until May. Proper cultural practices are key for control. See Turf Diseases: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_diseases

Houseplants: Inspect regularly for pests on indoor plants. Keep in mind that plant-specific temperature, light, and humidity are key to ensuring that indoor plants thrive. See Houseplants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_house_plants

Soil test: Consider performing a soil test if plants do not perform as desired or if new plantings are planned. See Soil Testing: http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/agriculture/soil_testing.html and Landscape and Soil Test (Home Lawn and Garden):http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_soil_testing

Compost/mulch: Use fallen leaves and other plant debris to provide the carbon ingredient needed for successful composting and also to make a good mulch. See Backyard Composting: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_composting and Landscape Mulches: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mulch

Landscape and garden pests: Continue monitoring and treat as needed. While cooler weather generally means fewer pests, some populations actually increase at this time of year. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Holiday trees: Consider enjoying a live southern red cedar and then plant it in the landscape when the holidays are over. See Christmas Tree Selection and Care: http://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/giam/potpourri/holiday/xmastree_care.html

Protect: Protect tender orchid, impatiens, and tomato from falling temperatures. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

What to Do Every Month

UF Resources for Gardeners

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank Carolyn Wildes and Mary Derrick for their time and dedication to the Florida Gardening Calendar project.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1191, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date April 2012. Revised January 2016 and September 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Sydney Park Brown, associate professor and Extension specialist—consumer horticulture, Environmental Horticulture Department, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Plant City, FL 33563.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.