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Publication #HS724

Chapter 6. Cole Crop Production1

Lincoln Zotarelli, Peter J. Dittmar, Monica Ozores-Hampton, Nicholas S. Dufault, Bonnie Wells, Johan Desaeger, Joseph W. Noling, Eugene J. McAvoy, Qingren Wang, and Christian F. Miller2

This is Chapter 6 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2018–2019 edition. The most current version of this chapter may be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv12200.pdf.

Botany and Planting

BroccoliBrassica oleraceae Italica group, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

Cabbage—Brassica oleraceae Capitata group.

CauliflowerBrassica oleraceae Botrytis group.

Chinese broccoli—gailan or gai lan / kalian or kai lan / flowering kale—Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra

Chinese cabbage—napa (tight headed), chi-hili (semi-loose headed)—Brassica rapa var. pekinsis

Chinese mustard—bok choi, shanghai choi / baby bok choi / yuchoi / yuchoy / u-choi / choy sum—Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis

KohlrabiBrassica oleracea var. gongylodes

Oriental radish—Daikon (Japanese) / lobok or lo bok (Chinese)—Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus

CollardsBrassica oleraceae Acephala group.

KaleBrassica oleraceae Acephala group.

MustardBrassica juncea.

TurnipBrassica rapa Rapifera group.

Table 1. 

Planting information for cole crops.

Planting dates

Broccoli

Brussels sprouts

Cabbage1

Cauliflower1

North Florida

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Central Florida

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

South Florida

Oct–Jan

Oct–Jan

Sept–Jan

Sept–Jan

Planting information

Distance between rows (in)

24 - 40

24 - 40

24 - 40

24 - 40

Distance between plants (in)

10 - 15

18 - 24

9 - 16

12 - 18

Seeding depth (in)

0.25 - 0.5

0.25 - 0.5

0.25 - 0.5

0.25 - 0.5

Seeding per acre for field (lb)

1 - 2

1 - 2

1 - 2

1 - 2

Seeding per acre for transplant (lb)

1.25 - 1.5

1.25 - 1.5

1

1.25 - 1.5

Days to maturity from seed

75 - 90

90 - 120

85 - 110

75 - 90

Days to maturity from transplant

50 - 70

70 - 90

70 - 90

50 - 70

Plant populations (acre)

10,400-26,000

Up to 15,500

Up to 29,400

Up to 29,000

Planting dates

Collards

Kale

Mustard

Turnip

North Florida

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Central Florida

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

South Florida

Sept–Jan

Sept–Jan

Sept–Jan

Sept–Jan

Planting information

Distance between rows (in)

24–36

18–24

12–36

12–36

Distance between plants (in)

12–24

8–12

5–10

2–6

Seeding depth (in)

0.25 - 0.5

0.25 - 0.5

0.25 - 0.5

0.25–0.5

Seeding per acre for field (lb)

2–4

2–4

3–5

2–3

Seeding per acre for transplant (lb)

1.25–1.5

N/A2

N/A2

N/A2

Days to maturity from seed

70–90

50–70

40–50

40–60

Days to maturity from transplant

50–70

Plant populations (acre)

Up to 21,800

Up to 43,500

Up to 116,200

Up to 261,400

1 It could be planted in double rows (15–24 in between rows; 10–12 in within rows; 40–60 in bed centers).

2 Direct seeded.

Cultivars

Table 2. 

Cabbage cultivars.

Green

Red

Savoy

Bravo (H)

Cairo

Clarissa (H)

Bronco (H)

Garnet (H)

Melissa (H)

Capture (H)

Red Dynasty (H)

Savoy Ace (H)

Cheers (H)

Red Hawk (H)

Savoy King (H)

Expat (H)

Red Jewel (H)

 

Grand Vantage (H)

Rio Grande (H)

 

Ramada (H)

   

Superstar (H)

   

Table 3. 

Broccoli, cauliflower, collard, kale, mustard, and turnip cultivars.

Broccoli

Brussels Sprout

Cauliflower

Collards

Kale

Mustard

Turnip

Turnip Greens

DuraPak 19 (H)*

Dagan (H)

Bermeo

Bull Dog (H)

Blue Ridge (H)

Florida Broad Leaf

Just Right (H)

Top Star (H)

Eastern Crown (H)

Marte (H)

Flamenco

Flash (H)

Darkibor (H)

Green Wave

Purple Top

Topper (H)

Emerald Crown (H)

 

Majestic (H)

Georgia

Starbor (H)

Red Giant

Royal Crown (H)

All Top (H)

Imperial

 

Whistler (H)

Hi Crop (H)

Vates

Southern Giant Curled

Southern Green

 

Green Magic (H)

 

White Passion (H)

Top Bunch

(H)

Winterbor (H)

Tendergreen

   

Packman (H)

   

Vates

       

H = hybrid, * = for northeast Florida

Asian Crucifers

The term “Asian Crucifers” is a broad category which encompasses Asian crucifer vegetables grown in the countries that comprise Asia and those eaten mainly by people of Asian extraction or who like Asian cuisine. Since many of the Asian crucifers which are described in this chapter belong to the crucifer family that are covered in depth of this chapter in this volume, that information will not be duplicated elsewhere.

This group of Asian crucifer vegetables include crops with edible leaves like cabbage, broccoli, and bok choi but also kohlrabi, with an edible swollen stem and daikon which is an edible root. The crops can be grown on raised beds with or without mulch and with drip, overhead or subsurface irrigation. Fertilizer recommendations for these crops can be found in chapter 2, Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in Florida, for general information. For pest control products, these crops are included under this chapter, with the exception of daikon.

Tables

This is Chapter 6 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2018–2019 edition. Tables 4–10 and the most current version of this chapter may be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv12200.pdf.

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS724, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 1995. Revised November 2018. This is Chapter 6 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2018–2019 edition. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Lincoln Zotarelli, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Peter J. Dittmar, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Monica Ozores-Hampton, associate professor, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida Research and Education Center; Nicholas S. Dufault, assistant professor, Plant Pathology Department; Bonnie Wells, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension St. Johns County; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Joseph W. Noling, professor, UF/IFAS Citrus Research and Education Center; Eugene J. McAvoy, Extension agent IV, UF/IFAS Extension Hendry County; Qingren Wang, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; and Christian F. Miller, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension Palm Beach County; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.