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Chapter 6. Cole Crop Production

Bonnie Wells, Hugh Smith, Lincoln Zotarelli, Peter J. Dittmar, Nicholas S. Dufault, Johan Desaeger, and Qingren Wang

Botany and Planting

BroccoliBrassica oleracea Italica group, Brassicaceae (Cruciferae).

CabbageBrassica oleracea Capitata group.

CauliflowerBrassica oleracea Botrytis group.

Chinese broccoli—Gailan or gai lan/kalian or kai lan/flowering kale—Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra.

Chinese cabbage—Napa (tight headed), chi-hili (semi-loose headed)—Brassica rapa var. pekinsis.

Chinese mustard—Bok choi, shanghai choi, baby bok choi, yuchoi, yuchoy, u-choi, choy sum—Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis.

CollardsBrassica oleracea Acephala group.

KohlrabiBrassica oleracea var. gongylodes.

MustardBrassica juncea.

Oriental radish—Daikon (Japanese), lobok or lo bok (Chinese)—Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus.

TurnipBrassica rapa Rapifera group.

Table 1. Planting information for cole crops.


Table 2. Cabbage cultivars.

Table 3. Broccoli, cauliflower, collard, kale, mustard, and turnip cultivars.

Asian Crucifers

The term “Asian crucifers” is a broad category that encompasses Asian crucifer vegetables grown in the countries that comprise Asia and those eaten mainly by people of Asian extraction or who like Asian cuisine. Because many of the Asian crucifers described in this chapter belong to the crucifer family, which is covered in depth in chapter 5, “Ethnic Vegetable Production,” that information will not be duplicated elsewhere. However, there are still some overlaps between these two chapters.

This group of Asian crucifer vegetable species include crops with edible leaves, like cabbage, broccoli, and bok choi, but also kohlrabi, which has edible swollen stems or tubers, and daikon, which is an edible root. These crops can be grown on raised beds with or without mulch and with drip, overhead, or subsurface irrigation. Fertilizer recommendations for these crops can be found in chapter 2, “Fertilizer Management for Vegetable Production in Florida,” as general information. For pest-control products, these crops are included under this chapter, with the exception of daikon, for which refer to information on radish in chapter 15, “Root Crop Production in Florida.”

Table 4. Planting information for Asian crucifers.

Table 5. Asian crucifer cultivars.

The following tables list registered pesticides that should be integrated with other pest management methods. Additional information on integrated management methods can be requested from UF/IFAS Extension horticulture or agriculture Extension agents. A list of local UF/IFAS Extension county offices is available at

Table 6. Herbicides approved for managing weeds in cole crops. Contact: Peter Dittmar, UF/IFAS Horticultural Sciences Department.


Table 7. Insecticides labeled for management of pests of cole crops. Contact: Bonnie Wells, UF/IFAS Extension Brevard County.


Table 8. Cole crop fungicides ordered by disease and FRAC group according to mode of action. Contact: Nicholas S. Dufault, UF/IFAS Plant Pathology Department.

Table 9. Nonfumigant nematicides for crucifer/cole crops in Florida. Contact: Johan Desaeger, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center.

Table 10. Fumigant nematicides for crucifer/cole crops in Florida. Contact: Johan Desaeger, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center.


Publication #HS724

Date: 8/15/2022


The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.

Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


About this Publication

This document is HS724, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 1995. Revised annually. Most recent revision June 2022. Visit the EDIS website at for the currently supported version of this publication.

About the Authors

Bonnie Wells, Extension agent II, UF/IFAS Extension Brevard County; Hugh A. Smith, associate professor, associate professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Lincoln Zotarelli, associate professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Peter J. Dittmar, associate professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Nicholas S. Dufault, associate professor, Plant Pathology Department; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; and Qingren Wang, Extension agent III, UF/IFAS Extension Miami-Dade County; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.


  • Lincoln Zotarelli