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Chapter 9. Leafy Vegetable Production1

Ramdas Kanissery, Richard N. Raid, Johan Desaeger, Julien Beuzelin, and Christian F. Miller2

This is Chapter 9 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2020–2021 edition. The tables and most current version of this chapter may be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv29300.pdf.

Lettuce, Endive, and Escarole

Botany and Planting

LettuceLactuca sativa, Asteraceae (Compositae)

EndiveCichorium endiva

EscaroleCichorium endive

Table 1. 

Planting information for lettuce, endive, and escarole.

Planting dates

Crisphead

Butterhead

Romaine

Endive

Escarole

North Florida

Sept–Oct; Jan–Feb

Sept–Oct; Jan–Feb

Aug–Oct; Jan–Feb

Aug–Oct; Jan–Feb

Aug–Oct; Jan–Feb

Central Florida

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

Aug–Feb

South Florida

Sept–Feb

Sept–Feb

Sept–Mar

Sept–Mar

Sept–Mar

Planting information

Distance between rows (in)

18–30

18–30

18–30

18–30

18–30

Distance between plants (in)

8–12

9

12

14–16

14–16

Seeding depth (in)

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

0.25

Seed per acre (lb)

1–3

1–3

2–4

3–4

3–4

Days to maturity from seed

70–95

60–80

60–80

60–80

60–80

Plant populations (acre)

43,560

38,720

29,040

24,891

24,891

Cultivars

Table 2. 

Lettuce, endive, and escarole cultivars.

Green Saladbowl

Romaine (green)

Red Leaf

Crisphead

Endive

Escarole

Green Star

Concept

Galactic

Gator

Marcant

Full Heart NR 65

Tropicana

Fusion

New Red Fire

Gulfstream

Salad King

Twinkle

Two Star

Kalura

Red Saladbowl

Raleigh

   
 

Medallion

Vulcan

Summer Crisp (red)

   
 

Snappy

       
 

Solid King

       
 

Terrapin

       

Boston

Romaine (red)

Oakleaf (green)

Bibb

   

Ermosa

Outredgeous

Ferrari

Cherokee

   

Florida Butter Crisp

Rosalita

Royal Oak

Floribibb

   

Margarita

         

Spinach

Botany and Planting

SpinachSpinacia olerace

Table 3. 

Planting information for spinach.

Planting dates

North and central Florida

Sept–Mar

South Florida

Oct–Feb

Planting information

Distance between rows (in)

12–36

Distance between plants (in)

2–6

Seeding depth (in)

0.5

Seed per acre (lb)

10–15

Days to maturity from seed

45–60

Plant population (acre)

261,136

Cultivars

Table 4. 

Spinach cultivars.

Smooth Leaf

A&C #30 (H)

Space (H)

Semi-savoy leaf

Ashley (H)

Seaside

Chinook II (H)

Skookum (H)

Gladiator (H)

Tyee (H)

Melody (H)

 

Savoy leaf

Ambassador (H)

Hybrid 612 (H)

H = hybrid

Tables

Table 5. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in lettuce.

Active Ingredient

lb a.i./Acre

Trade Name

Product/Acre

MOA

Code

Crops

Weeds Controlled/Remarks

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

*** PREEMERGENCE ***

Benefin

1.2

(Balan)

2 lb

3

Lettuce

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply before seeding or transplanting. Incorporate with cultivation or irrigation into the top 2 to 3 in. of the final bed.

Bensulide

5.0–6.0

(Prefar) 4 E

5–6 qt

8

Leafy vegetables

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Incorporate with cultivation or irrigation. Do not use on spinach or Swiss chard.

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Leafy vegetables

Apply as a preplant burndown for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate, methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb. a.i./A per season. No pretransplant interval.

Glyphosate

(various formulations) consult label

9

Leafy vegetables

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. Consult label for individual product directions.

Imazethapyr

0.016–0.031

(Pursuit) 2 EC

1–2 fl oz

2

Lettuce, endive, escarole

Broadleaf weeds. Apply in fields with 40% organic matter or greater. Do not apply more than 2 applications per crop. A maximum of 4 oz of product per acre per crop season. Should be applied in 2 or more gallons of water per acre. Potential for rotational crop injury is highly variable. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without having a signed authorization and waiver of liability agreement is a misuse of the product. PHI 30 days.

Paraquat

0.5–1.0

(Gramoxone) 2 SL

2–4 pt

(Firestorm) 3 SL

1.3–2.7 pt

22

Lettuce, endive, escarole

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. Do not make more than 3 applications per year. Consult label for new restrictions.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3%–10% v/v

27

Leafy vegetables

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown before planting.

Pronamide

1.0–2.0

(Kerb) 50 WP

2.0–4.0 lb

3

Head lettuce, endive, escarole

Certain annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Overhead irrigate with 1 to 2 in. following applications. Observe rotational restrictions to other crops. Not recommended for soils with high organic matter. PHI 55 days.

Pyraflufen

0.001–0.003

(ET Herbicide/Defoliant)

0.5–2.0 fl oz

14

Leafy vegetables

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown 1 day prior to planting. Include an NIS at 0.25% or COC at 1.0% to the spray solution.

Trifluralin

0.5

(Treflan, Trifluralin) 4 EC

1.0 pt

(Trifluralin) 10 G

5 lb

3

Endive, escarole, radicchio

Annual broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as preplant incorporate to mineral soils only.

**POSTEMERGENCE**

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Leafy vegetables

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides.

Clethodim

0.09–0.13

0.07–0.13

(Select, Arrow) 2 EC

6–8 fl oz

(Select Max) 1 EC

9–16 fl oz

1

Leafy vegetables

Emerged annual and perennial grass weeds. For repeat application, minimum of 14 days between applications. PHI 14 days.

Imazethapyr

0.016–0.031

(Pursuit) 2 EC

1–2 fl oz

2

Lettuce, endive, escarole

Broadleaf weeds. Apply in fields with 40% organic matter or greater. Apply postemergence after 3–4 true leaf stage. Do not apply more than 2 applications per crop. A maximum of 4 oz per crop season. Potential for rotational crop damage is highly variable. Label is a Third-Party Registration (TPR, Inc.). Use without having a signed authorization and waiver for liability agreement is a misuse of the product. PHI 30 days.

Paraquat

0.3–0.5

(Gramoxone) 2 SL

1.2–1.9 pt

22

Lettuce

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Row middles only. Consult individual labels for not all formulations are labeled for this use pattern. Include a NIS at 0.25% v/v. PHI 24 hrs. Consult label for new restrictions.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3%–10% v/v

27

Leafy vegetables

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a directed or shielded spray to row middles.

Sethoxydim

0.19–0.28

(Poast) 1.5 EC

1.0–1.5 pt

1

Head/leaf lettuce, endive, radicchio

Emerged grass weeds. Do not exceed 3.0 pt/A per season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Head lettuce and radicchio PHI 30 days. Leaf lettuce and endive PHI 15 days.

Table 6. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in spinach.

Active Ingredient

lb a.i./Acre

Trade Name

Product/Acre

MOA

Code

Weeds Controlled/Remarks

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

*** PREPLANT/PREEMERGENCE ***

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Apply as a preplant burndown for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate, methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb a.i./A per season. No pretransplant interval.

Glyphosate

(various formulations)

consult labels

9

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar-applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with soil residual compounds.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3%–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar-applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with soil residual compounds.

Pyraflufen

0.001–0.003

(ET Herbicide) 0.208 EC

0.5–2.0 fl oz

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment.

*** POSTEMERGENCE ***

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Emerged broadleaf weeds. Apply as hooded application to row middles only. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. May be tank mixed with other herbicides. PHI 0 days.

Clopyralid

0.06–0.12

(Clopyr Ag) 3 EC

0.17–0.33 pt

4

Certain broadleaf weeds. Do not exceed a total of 0.5 pt/A per growing season. Apply in the 2- to 5-leaf stage of crop growth. PHI 21 days.

Clethodim

0.09–0.13

0.07–0.25

(Arrow, Select) 2 EC

6–8 fl oz

(Select Max) 1 EC

9–16 fl oz

1

Perennial and annual grass weeds. Use higher rates under heavy grass pressure or larger grass weeds. Read the label for required surfactant. PHI 14 days.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3%–10% v/v

27

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Direct spray to row middles. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar-applied herbicide with no residual control. May be tank mixed with several soil residual compounds.

Sethoxydim

0.19–0.28

(Poast) 1.5 EC

1.0–1.5 pt

1

Controls emerged grass weeds. A total of 3.0 pt/A applied in one season. Include a crop oil concentrate. Unsatisfactory results may occur if applied to grasses under stress. PHI 15 days.

Table 7. 

Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of lettuce and other leafy vegetables (non-Brassica, including escarole and endive).

Pest

MOA Code1

Trade Name

Active Ingredient

*Restricted

Rate

Product/Acre

REI

(Hours)

Days to Harvest

Notes2

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Aphids

1A

*Lannate LV, *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

10, or 7 for lowest rates for lettuce only

Head varieties: Maximum of 24 pt (LV) or 8 lb (SP)/acre per crop. Leaf varieties and endive (escarole), dandelions, Swiss chard: Maximum of 12 pt (LV) or 4 lb (SP)/acre per crop.

 

1B

*Diazinon AG500, 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 0.5–1 pt

50W: 0.5–1 lb

72

14

Do not apply more than once. Head and leaf lettuce only.

 

1B

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5 pt

48

14

Leaf lettuce only; not for head lettuce. Also for endive

(escarole) and Swiss chard.

 

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.0 pt for endive,

2–3 pt for lettuce

8F: 1.25 pt for endive, 1.88

pt for leaf and head lettuce

24

7 for endive

14 for head and leaf lettuce

Maximum of 2 applications per year.

 

1B

Orthene 97

(acephate)

0.5–1.0 lb

24

21

Crisphead head lettuce only. Maximum of 2.125 lb/acre per

crop cycle.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 25.8 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.8 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop

Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–18 fl oz

12

0

Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential.

Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A,-

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix

with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to

foraging bees.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.3 fl oz

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil)/acre per year.

 

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

2.0–4.0 oz

12

7

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed.

Do not apply more than 5 times per season or apply more often

than every 7 days.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, do not apply more than 0.2 lb

a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Do not apply at intervals of less than

10 days. Highly toxic to bees.

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

Toxic to bees.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction

with other 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil) /acre per season.

See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam,

chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam,

chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz/acre per season or 0.172 lb a.i. of

thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb a.i. of chlorantraniliprole/acre per season.

 

4C

Closer

(sulfoxaflor)

1.5–2.0 fl oz

12

3

Maximum of 17 fl oz/acre per year. See pollinator protection

restrictions on label.

 

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7.0–14.0 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per crop season. Maximum crop

seasons per year of 3.

 

6, 28

*Minecto Pro

(abamectin,

cyantraniliprole)

10 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 20 fl oz/acre per year, or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of

cyantraniliprole-containing products and 0.056 lb a.i./acre per

year of abamectin-containing products including all application

types.

 

9B

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

7

Do not exceed 5.5 oz product per acre per season.

 

9B

PQZ

(pyrifluquinazon)

2.4–3.2 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 4.8 fl oz/acre per crop cycle.

 

9D

Versys

(afidopyropen)

1.5 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 14 fl oz/acre per season.

 

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

17–21 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply until at least 14 days after emergence. Maximum of 42 fl oz/acre per crop cycle.

 

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0–5.0 fl oz

24

3

Do not apply more than 10 fl oz/acre per crop. See label for information about the use of adjuvants.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark) including all application types. For best performance, use an adjuvant.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A—applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel), including all application types.

 

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

0

Do not apply more than 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

 

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

BotaniGard ES

Mycotrol ESO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallon/acre. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. Mycotrol ESO OMRI-listed2.

 

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–2 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

Requiem EC

(Extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2.0–4.0 qt

4

0

 
 

Suffoil-X

(mineral oil)

1–2 gal/100 gal

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

Beetles (includes cucumber beetles, flea beetles) and weevils

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5–1.0 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 12.8 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.02–1.54 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 15.4 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential.

Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

1.28–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole)

6–9 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 31 fl oz/acre per year.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx (pyrethrins, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to foraging bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

1.3 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz/acre per year. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, maximum of 0.2 lb a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Highly toxic to bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG (clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG (thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz/acre per season or 0.172 lb a.i. of thiamethoxam or 0.2 lb a.i. of chlorantraniliprole/acre per season.

 

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

17–21 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply until at least 14 days after emergence. Maximum of 42 fl oz/acre per crop cycle. Flea beetles only.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

Caterpillars

(includes armyworms, corn earworm, green cloverworm, tobacco budworm, lesser cornstalk borer, loopers, cutworms).

1A

*Lannate LV, *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

10, or 7 for lowest rates for lettuce only

Head varieties: Maximum of 24 pt (LV) or 8 lb (SP)/acre per crop. Leaf varieties and endive (escarole), dandelions, Swiss chard: Maximum of 12 pt (LV) or 4 lb (SP)/acre per crop.

 

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

1–2 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

1B

*Diazinon AG500, *50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 1–2 qt, 1–4 qt for endive (escarole)

50W: 2–4 lb, 2–8 lb for endive (escarole)

72—lettuce 96—endive (escarole)

preplant

Head and leaf lettuce, endive (escarole) only.

 

1B

Orthene 97

(acephate)

1.0 lb

24

21

Crisphead head lettuce only. Maximum of 2.125 lb/acre per crop cycle.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 128 oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Asana XL

(esfenvalerate)

4.8–9.6 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Do not apply more than 0.35 lb a.i. per acre per season.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum amount per acre per season: 12.8 fl oz.

 

3A

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 15.4 fl oz/acre per season. Armyworms: 1st and 2nd instar larvae only.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

3.2–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.8 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential.

Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2.

 

34

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season. 1st and 2nd instar larvae only.

 

3A, 28

*Besiege (lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole)

5–9 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 31 fl oz/acre per year.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx (pyrethrins, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1, except 3 for turnip greens

See label for resistance management recommendations. Do not apply more than 29 oz per acre per crop or more than twice in succession. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1, 3 for turnip greens and other leaves of root, tuber, legume vegetables

Maximum of 6 applications; no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotation to another product with a different mode of action.

 

6, 28

*Minecto Pro

(abamectin, cyantraniliprole)

5.5–10.0 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 20 fl oz/acre per year, or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products and 0.056 lb a.i./acre per year of abamectin-containing products, including all application types.

 

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacilius thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential.

May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

 

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4–10 fl oz

4

1

Do not apply more than 64 fl oz/acre per season.

 

22

Avaunt

Avaunt eVo

(indoxacarb)

2.5–6.0 oz

12

3

Maximum of 24 oz/acre per crop and 96 oz/acre per year (Avaunt) or 18 oz/acre per crop and 72 oz/acre per year (Avaunt eVo).

 

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–7.5 fl oz

4

1

Can be applied by drip chemigation to soil at planting or used as a foliar spray.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

7–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark) including all application types.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

5.0–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A—applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel) including all application types.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–2 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Kryocide (cryolite)

8–20 lb

12

14

Do not apply more than 160 lb/acre/season. For leaf and head varieties of lettuce.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

MRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

MRI-listed2.

Stink bugs, plant bugs, meadow spittlebug

3A

*Brigade 2 EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.02–1.54 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 15.4 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A, 28

*Besiege

(lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorantraniliprole)

6–9 fl oz

24

1

Maximum of 31 fl oz/acre per year.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

Fire ants

7

Extinguish

(S-methoprene)

1–1.5 lb

0

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Grasshoppers, Mole crickets

1B

*Diazinon AG500, *50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 1–2 qt, 1–4 qt for endive (escarole)

50W: 2–4 lb, 2–8 lb for endive (escarole)

AG500: 72—lettuce

50W: 96—endive (esca- role)

preplant

See label. Head and leaf lettuce, endive (escarole) only.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum amount per acre per season: 12.8 fl oz.

 

3A

*Declare

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.02–1.54 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 15.4 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

Leafhoppers

1A

*Lannate LV, *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

10, or 7 for lowest rates for lettuce only

Head varieties: Maximum of 24 pt (LV) or 8 lb (SP)/acre per crop. Leaf varieties and endive (escarole), dandelions, Swiss chard: Maximum of 12 pt (LV) or 4 lb (SP)/acre per crop.

 

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5–1.0 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

1B

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5 pt

48

14

Leaf lettuce only, not for head lettuce. Also for endive (escarole) and Swiss chard.

 

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 2–3 pt for lettuce

8F: 1.25 pt for endive, 1.88 pt for leaf and head lettuce

24

14 for head and leaf lettuce

Do not apply more than twice per year.

 

1B

Orthene 97

(acephate)

0.5–1.0 lb

24

21

Crisphead head lettuce only. Maximum of 2.125 lb/acre per crop cycle.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 128 oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum amount per acre per season: 12.8 fl oz.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

1.02–1.54 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 15.4 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop

Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential.

Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to foraging bees.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.3 fl oz

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil)/acre per year.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, do not apply more than 0.2 lb a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Do not apply at intervals of less than 10 days. Highly toxic to bees.

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

Toxic to bees.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season.

See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam,

chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 fl oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods.

 

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7.0–14.0 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per crop season. Maximum crop seasons per year of 3.

 

16

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9.0–13.6 fl oz

12

7

Insect growth regulator. Do not make more than 2 applications per season per crop or 4 per year. Allow 7 days between applications.

 

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

14–21 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply until at least 14 days after emergence. Maximum of 42 fl oz/acre per crop cycle.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

JMS Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-

Side, Suffoil-X, Sun

Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

3–6 qt/100 gal (JMS), 1–2

gal/100 gal

4

0

Organic Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, and Suffoil-X are OMRI-listed2.

Leafminers

1B

*Diazinon AG500, *50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 0.5–1 pt

50W: 0.5–1 lb

72

14

Do not apply more than once. Head and leaf lettuce only.

 

1B

Dimethoate 4 EC

(dimethoate)

0.5 pt

48

14

Leaf lettuce only, not for head lettuce. Also for endive (escarole) and Swiss chard.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop

Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Can be used in greenhouses. Thorough coverage is essential.

Breaks down rapidly in sunlight. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1, but 3 for turnip greens

See label for resistance management recommendations. Do not apply more than 29 oz per acre per crop or more than twice in succession. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1, 3 for turnip greens and other leaves of root, tuber, legume vegetables

Maximum of 6 applications; no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.50 fl oz

12

7

No more than 2 sequential applications. Must be mixed with an adjuvant—see label. Highly toxic to foraging bees.

 

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotation to another product with a different mode of action.

 

6, 28

*Minecto Pro

(abamectin, cyantraniliprole)

5.5–10.0 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 20 fl oz/acre per year, or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products and 0.056 lb a.i./acre per year of abamectin-containing products, including all application types.

 

17

Trigad

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

Limited to six applications for head lettuce and five applications for other leafy vegetables.

 

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

5.0–7.5 fl oz

4

1

May be applied by drip chemigation in addition to foliar and various soil application methods.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark), including all application types. For best performance, use an adjuvant.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A—applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel), including all application types.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Requiem EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

2.0–4.0 qt

4

0

 
 

-

Sun Spray 98.8%, JMS Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, others

Oil, insecticidal

3–6 qt/100 gal (JMS); 1–2 gal/100 gal

4

0

Organic Stylet-Oil and Saf-T-Side are OMRI-listed2.

Mites (includes carmine spider mite, two-spotted spider mite)

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.0 pt for endive, 2.5–3.0 pt for lettuce

8F: 1.25 pt for endive, 1.88 pt for leaf and head lettuce

24

7 for endive, 14 for head and leaf lettuce

Do not apply more than twice per year.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Head lettuce only. Maximum of 32 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

1

Head and leaf lettuce only. Maximum of 19.2 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx (pyrethrins, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.50 fl oz

12

7

No more than 2 sequential applications. Must be mixed with an adjuvant. Highly toxic to foraging bees.

 

6, 28

*Minecto Pro

(abamectin, cyantraniliprole)

5.5–10.0 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 20 fl oz/acre per year, or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products and 0.056 lb a.i./acre per year of abamectin-containing products including all application types.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

JMS Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, Suffoil-X, Sun Spray 98.8%, others

Oil, insecticidal

3–6 qt/100 gal (JMS), 1–2 gal/100 gal

4

0

Organic Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, and Suffoil-X are OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment.

OMRI-listed2.

Thrips (check labels for species control)

1A

*Lannate LV, *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

10, or 7 for lowest rates for lettuce

only

Head varieties: Maximum of 24 pt (LV) or 8 lb (SP)/acre per crop. Leaf varieties and endive (escarole), dandelions, Swiss chard: Maximum of 12 pt (LV) or 4 lb (SP)/acre per crop.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx (pyrethrins, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1, but 3 for turnip greens

See label for resistance management recommendations. Do not apply more than 29 oz per acre per crop, or more than twice in succession. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1, 3 for turnip greens and other leaves of root, tuber, legume vegetables

Includes turnip greens. Maximum of 6 applications, no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

21 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply until at least 14 days after emergence. Maximum of 42 fl oz/acre per crop cycle.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark), including all application.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

BotaniGard ES

Mycotrol ESO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallon/acre. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. Mycotrol ESO OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

JMS Stylet-Oil, Saf-T- Side, Suffoil-X, Sun Spray 98.8%, others Oil, insecticidal

3–6 qt/100 gal (JMS), 1–2 gal/100 gal

4

0

Organic Stylet-Oil, Saf-T-Side, and Suffoil-X are OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 9.4 March 2020. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain subgroups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. - = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI-listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 8. 

Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of spinach.

Pest

Mode Code1

Trade Name Active Ingredient

*Restricted

Rate

Product/Acre

REI

(hours)

Days to Harvest

Notes2

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Aphids

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.6 pt

8F: 1.0 pt

12

7

Maximum of 2 applications per year.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 1.0 lb a.i./acre per season (5 applications at high rate).

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.6 lb a.i./acre per season (Maximum 3 applications at highest rate).

 

3A

PyGanic Crop

Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight, but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to foraging bees.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.3 fl oz

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil)/acre per year. Toxic to bees.

 

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

2.0–4.0 oz

12

7

Begin applications for whiteflies when first adults are noticed.

Do not apply more than 5 times per season or apply more often than every 7 days.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, do not apply more than 0.2 lb a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Do not apply at intervals of less than 10 days. Highly toxic to bees.

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

Toxic to bees. Do not allow drift to flowering weeds or nearby crops in bloom.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season.

See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods.

One application per season.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7.0–14.0 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per year.

 

9B

Fulfill

(pymetrozine)

2.75 oz

12

7

Apply when aphids first appear, before populations build to damaging levels. Two applications may be needed to control

persistent aphid populations.

 

9B

PQZ

(pyrifluquinazon)

2.4–3.2 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 4.8 fl oz/acre per crop cycle.

 

9D

Versys

(afidopyropen)

1.5 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 14 fl oz/acre per season.

 

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

4.0–5.0 fl oz

24

3

Do not apply more than 10 fl oz/acre/crop. See label for

information about the use of adjuvants.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark), including all application types. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A: applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel) including all application types.

 

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

0

Maximum of 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

BotaniGard ES

Mycotrol ESO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallon/acre. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. Mycotrol ESO is OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–2 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC (azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

1.0%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed2.

Beetles (includes cucumber beetle, flea beetles, darkling beetles) and weevils.

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5–1.0 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 12.8 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 25.6 fl oz/acre per season.

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx (pyrethrins, Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to foraging bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

1.3 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz/acre per year. Toxic to bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, do not apply more than 0.2 lb a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Highly toxic to bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil) /acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label. Flea beetles only.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label. Flea beetles only.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 oz

12

30

 
 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

Caterpillars

(include armyworms, corn earworm, green cloverworm, tobacco budworm, lesser cornstalk borer, loopers, cutworms)

1A

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

7

Do not use more than 4 lb of SP or 12 pt of LV per acre/season. Do not apply to seedlings less than 3” diameter.

 

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

1–2 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

1B

*Diazinon AG500, 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 2.0–4.0 qt

50W: 4.0–8.0 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one soil application per year.

 

3A

*Baythroid XL

(beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 12.8 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

2.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 25.6 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

3.2–12.8 oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.6 lb a.i./acre per season (Maximum 3 applications at highest rate).

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1

Use no more than 29 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 6 applications; no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 28.8 oz/A per season.

 

11A

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis

ssp. kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. OMRI-listed2.

 

11A

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

ssp. kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

 

11A

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis

ssp. kurstaki)

0.25–1.5 lb

4

0

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed2.

 

11A

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

ssp. kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. See label for rates for specific pests. For organic production.

 

11A

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

ssp. kurstaki)

0.12–1.5 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential.

OMRI-listed2.

 

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

 

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–7.5 fl oz

4

1

Can be applied by drip chemigation to soil at planting or used as a foliar spray.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

7–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark), including all application types. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

5.0–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A—applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel), including all application types.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Grandevo (Chromobacterium subt- sugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Kryocide

(cryolite)

8–20 lb

12

14

Do not apply more than 160 lb/acre/season.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

Stink bugs, plant bugs, meadow spittlebug

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

1–2 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 25.6 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0 (pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

29

Beleaf 50 SG

(flonicamid)

2.0–2.8 oz

12

0

Maximum of 8.4 oz/acre per season. Begin applications before pests reach damaging levels

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

Fire ants

7A

Extinguish

(S-methoprene)

1–1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

Grasshoppers, mole crickets

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum of 12.8 fl oz/acre per season.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

Leafhopper

1A

Sevin 4F

XLR Plus

(carbaryl)

0.5–1.0 qt

12

14

Maximum of 6 qt/acre per year.

 

1B

Malathion 8F

(malathion)

1.6 pt

12

7

Maximum of 2 applications per year.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 1.0 lb a.i./acre per season (5 applications at high rate).

 

3A

*Baythroid XL (beta-cyfluthrin)

0.8–3.2 fl oz

12

0

Maximum amount per acre per season: 12.8 fl oz.

 

3A

*Mustang Maxx

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.24–4.0 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 24 fl oz/acre per season.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 W (permethrin)

3.2–12.8 oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.6 lb a.i./acre per season (no more than 3 applications at highest rate).

 

3A

PyGanic Crop Protection EC 5.0

(pyrethrins)

4.5–15.6 fl oz

12

0

Pyrethrins degrade rapidly in sunlight but still may be harmful to bees. OMRI-listed2.

 

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

4A

Actara

(thiamethoxam)

1.5–3.0 oz

12

7

Maximum of 11 oz/acre per growing season. Highly toxic to foraging bees.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

Foliar: 1.3 fl oz

Soil: 4.4–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6.5 fl oz (foliar) or 10.5 fl oz (soil)/acre per year. Toxic to bees.

 

4A

Belay

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 3–4 fl oz

Soil: 9–12 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Regardless of application method, do not apply more than 0.2 lb a.i./acre per year (12 fl oz). Do not apply at intervals of less than 10 days. Highly toxic to bees

 

4A

Belay 50 WDG

(clothianidin)

Foliar: 1.6–2.1 oz

Soil: 4.8–6.4 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6.4 oz/acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant. Toxic to bees.

 

4A

Platinum 75 SG

(thiamethoxam)

1.66–3.67 oz

12

30

Maximum of 3.67 oz/acre per season. Do not use in conjunction with other 4A insecticides.

 

4A

Scorpion 35 SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 2–5.25 fl oz

Soil: 9–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 10.5 fl oz (foliar) or 21 fl oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A

Venom

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 1.0–3.0 oz

Soil: 5.0–6.0 oz

12

Foliar: 7

Soil: 21

Maximum of 6 oz (foliar) or 12 oz (soil)/acre per season. See pollinator protection restrictions on label.

 

4A, 28

Durivo

(thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole)

10–13 oz

12

30

May be applied using one of several soil application methods. One application per season.

 

4A, 28

Voliam Flexi (thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole)

4.0–7.0 oz

12

7

Do not exceed a total of 14 oz of Voliam Flexi per acre per season. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

4D

Sivanto Prime

(flupyradifurone)

7.0–14.0 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 28 fl oz/acre per year.

 

16

Courier 40SC

(buprofezin)

9.0–13.6 fl oz

12

7

Insect growth regulator. Do not make more than 2 applications per season per crop, or more than 4 per year. Allow 7 days between applications.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

Leafminers

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1

Use no more than 29 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 6 applications; no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.50 fl oz

12

7

No more than 2 sequential applications. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season. Must be mixed with a nonionic activator-type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, but not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant.

 

6

*Proclaim

(emamectin benzoate)

2.4–4.8 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 28.8 oz/A per season.

 

17

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

No more than 5 applications per crop.

 

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–7.5 fl oz

4

1

May be applied by drip chemigation in addition to foliar and various soil application methods.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing.

Products (such as Verimark), including all application types. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

6.75–13.5 fl oz

4

N/A; applied at planting

Maximum of 13.5 fl oz at planting or 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Exirel) including all application types.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

IGR and feeding repellant. OMRI-listed2.

Mites

(includes carmine spider mite, two-spotted spider mite)

3A

*Brigade 2EC

(bifenthrin)

5.1–6.4 fl oz

12

7

Maximum of 25.6 fl oz/acre per season.

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.50 fl oz

12

7

No more than 2 sequential applications. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season. Must be mixed with a nonionic activator- type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, but not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant.

Thrips

(check label for species controlled)

3A, -

BotaniGard Maxx

(pyrethrins, Beauveria

bassiana strain GHA)

Ground appl.: 0.25–2.00 qt

Aerial appl.: 0.25–1.00 qt

12

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. May not be compatible with adjuvants.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

1.5–10.0 fl oz

4

1

Use no more than 29 oz per acre per crop. OMRI-listed2.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Maximum of 6 applications; no more than 2 consecutive applications before rotating to another MOA.

 

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Maximum of 0.4 lb a.i./acre per year of cyantraniliprole-containing products (such as Verimark), including all application types. Do not use an adjuvant.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

BotaniGard ES

Mycotrol ESO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 qt

4

0

Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallon/acre. Compatible in tank mix with some fungicides. Mycotrol ESO is OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Can be used in organic production. OMRI-listed2.

 

-

M-Pede 49%

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed2.

 

-

Molt-X

(azadirachtin)

10 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed2.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 9.4 March 2020. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain subgroups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. - = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI-listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

*Restricted use insecticide.

Table 9. 

Escarole and endive fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical

(Active Ingredients)

Max Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

     

Appl.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

 

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Alternaria leaf spot

3

Procure 480SC

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

18 fl oz

0

0.5

 

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3

Trionic 4SC

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

16 fl oz

0

0.5

No more than 2 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11.0 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

See label for restrictions.

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

15.4 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

Bacterial blight

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, Champ DP, Champ Formula 2, Champion++, Cueva, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide 3000, Kop-hydroxide, Nu-Cop 50WP, Nu-Cop 3L, Nu-Cop HB, Nu-Cop D

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 

Basal rot

Septoria

Gray mold

Sclerotinia

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

28 oz

0

0.5

 

14

Botran 5F

(dichloran)

5.33 lb

5.33 lb

14

0.5

 

19

OSO 5%SC

(polyoxin D zinc salt)

13 fl oz

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

Botrytis rot

7

Endura

(boscalid)

9.0 oz

18 oz

14

0.5

See label for details.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

See label for details.

14

Botran 5F

(dichloran)

5.33 lb

5.33 lb

14

0.5

 

Cercospora leaf spot

Septoria leaf spot

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11.0 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

7 & 12

Miravis Prime

(pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

See label for restrictions.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

15.4 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Damping off

M3

Defiant 75 WP

(thiram)

5.3 oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Downy mildew

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, Champ DP, Champ Formula 2, Champion++, Cueva, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide 3000, Kop-hydroxide, Nu-Cop 50WP, Nu-Cop 3L, Nu-Cop HB, Nu-Cop DF

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 
 

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Crusade DF, Microfine Sulfur, Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

 

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Reason

(fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

 

U15

Orondis Gold 200

(oxathiapripolin)

19.2 fl oz

38.4 fl oz

0

4 hr

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis Ultra if applied using soil applications. Be aware of plant-back restrictions.

 

U15

Orondis Ultra

(oxathiapripolin)

4.8 fl oz

19.2 fl oz

0

4 hr

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis Ultra if Orondis Gold was applied using soil applications. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

 

U15 & 4

Orondis Gold 200 + Orondis Gold B

(oxathiapiprolin + mefenoxam)

19.2 fl oz

19.2 fl oz

0

4 hr

Must tank mix Orondis Gold 200 and Gold B before application. Apply at planting, in furrow, by drip, or in transplant water. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

 

U15 & 40

Orondis Ultra + Orondis Ultra B

(oxathiapiprolin + mandipropamid)

4.8 fl oz

4.8 fl oz

0

4 hr

Must tank mix Orondis Ultra and Ultra B before application. Apply prior to disease development. Make no more than 2 sequential applications before alternating with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

 

21

Ranman

(cyazofamid)

2.75 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

27 & 11

Tanos

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

24 oz

3

0.5

 
 

33

Aliette WDG

Legion 80WDG

Linebacker WDG

(fosetyl-Al)

5 lb

5 lb

5 lb

35 lb

20 lb

20 lb

3

3

3

0.5

0.5

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides.

 

33

(mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available: Alude, Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungi- phite, K-Phite 7LP, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Phostrol, Prophyt, Rampart, Reveille

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

 

40

Forum

(dimethopmorph)

6.0 fl oz

30 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not apply sequentially.

 

40

Orondis Ultra B

(mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

1

0.5

Do not exceed 4 applications per crop. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications. Do not exceed more than 33% of total foliar applications.

 

40

Revus

(mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

1

4 hr

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications.

 

43

Presidio

(fluopicolide)

4 fl oz

12 fl oz

2

0.5

Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of different mode of action. Do not exceed two sequential applications.

 

45/40

Zampro

(ametoctradin + dimethomorph)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications

Powdery mildew

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Microfine Sulfur, Micro Sulf, Microthiol Disperss, Suffa, Sulfur 90W

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

3

Procure 480SC

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

18 fl oz

0

0.5

 

3

Trionic 4SC

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

16 fl oz

0

0.5

No more than 2 applications per season.

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11.0 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

See label for restrictions.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications. See label for details.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Equation, Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Pythium damping off

4

Sebring

(metalaxyl)

0.7 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

2

Seed treatment only.

Pythium seedling blight

4

Acquire

Allegiance FL

(metalaxyl)

0.7 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Metastar 2E

(metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

2

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches.

4

Apron XL

(mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed

   

2

 

Pythium seedling diseas

4

Ridomil Gold SL

Ridomil Gold GR

Ultra Flourish

(mefenoxam)

2 pt

40 lb

4 pt

   

2

2

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

Rhizoctonia bottom rot

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Sclerotinia diseases

7

Endura

(boscalid)

10.0 oz

18 oz

14

0.5

See label for details.

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

15.2 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

Various seedling diseases

4 & 11

Uniform

(azoxystrobin + mefenoxam)

0.34 fl oz/1000 fl of row

1 appl.

 

0

Soil incorporated.

 

12

Maxim 4FSS

(fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

0.5

Seed treatment only.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2019; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 10. 

Lettuce fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemicals

(Active Ingredients)

Max Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

Appl.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Alternaria spp.

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3

Trionic

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

16 fl oz

0

0.5

No more than 2 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystrobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to different mode of action. No more than 2 applications at max rate.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

15.4 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

Bacterial blight

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, Champion++, Cueva, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide 3000,

Kop-hydroxide, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Stretch, Tenn Cop, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 

Basal rot

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

28 oz

0

0.5

 

Botrytis rot

7

Endura

(boscalid)

11 oz

22 oz

14

0.5

 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

12

Cannonball WG (fludioxonil)

7 oz

28 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

14

Botran 5F

(dichloran)

5.33 lb

5.33 lb

14

0.5

 

Cercospora leaf spot

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

0.5 oz

1.5 lb

14

0.5

 

Damping off

M3

Defiant 75WP

(thiram)

5.3 oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

Downy mildew

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG,

Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, Cueva, Kocide 3000, Nordox 75 WG, Nu-Cop 50WP, Nu-Cop 3L, Nu-Cop HB, Nu-Cop DF, Stretch, Tenn Cop, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 
 

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Cosavet DF, Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, That Flowable, Thiolux, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather.

Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

 

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available: Dithane M45, Dithane F45 Rainshield, Fortuna 75WDG, Koverall, Mankocide, Manzate Max, Manzate Pro-stick, Penncozeb 75 DF, Penncozeb 80 WP, Roper DF Rainshield

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

10

1

 
 

U15

Orondis Ultra (oxathiapiprolin)

4.8 fl oz

19.2 fl oz

0

4 hr

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis Ultra if Orondis Gold was applied using soil applications. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications, and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

 

U15 & 4

Orondis Gold 200 + Orondis Gold B (oxathiapiprolin + mefenoxam)

2 pt

 

7

2

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis Ultra if applied using soil applications. Be aware of plant-back restrictions.

 

4

Ridomil Gold SL

(mefenoxam)

0.25 pt

1.0 pt

7

2

Must be applied in a tank mixture with full rate of another downy-mildew-registered product.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Tetraban, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Reason

(fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

15

Acrobat 50 WP

(dimethomorph)

6.4 oz

32 oz

0

0.5

 
 

15

Forum

(dimethomorph)

6 fl oz

30 fl oz

0

0.5

Must be applied as a tank mix with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

21

Ranman

(cyazofamid)

2.75 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

21

Actigard 50 WG

(acibenzolar)

1 oz

4 oz

7

0.5

Apply preventatively. See label for details.

(suppression only)

21A

Toran

(tolfenpyrad)

21 fl oz

42 fl oz

14

0.5

Also an insecticide.

 

27

Curzate

(cymoxanil)

5 oz

30 oz

3

0.5

Must be applied as a tank mix with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

27 & 11

Tanos

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

24 oz

3

0.5

 
 

28

Previcur Flex

(propamocarb)

2 pt

8 pt

2

0.5

 
 

28

Promess

(propamocarb)

2 pt

8 pt

2

0.5

 
 

33

Aliette WDG

(fosetyl-AI)

5 lb

35 lb

3

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides.

 

33

Legion 80WDG

(fosetyl-AI)

5 lb

20 lb

3

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides.

 

33

Linebacker WDG

(fosetyl-AI)

5 lb

20 lb

3

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides.

 

33

(mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available: Alude, Confine Extra, Fosphite, Fungi-phite, K-Phite 7LP, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Phostrol, Prophyt, Rampart

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

 

40

Forum

(dimethomorph)

6 fl oz

30 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not apply alone in sequential applications.

 

40

Revus

(mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

1

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications.

 

43

Presidio

(fluopicolide)

3–4 fl oz

12 fl oz

2

0.5

Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of different mode of action. Do not exceed two sequential applications. See label for soil applications.

 

45 & 40

Zampro

(ametoctradin + dimethomorph)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

0

4 hr

 

Gray mold

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystrobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to different mode of action. No more than 2 applications at max rate.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

28 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Powdery mildew

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Cosavet DF, Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, That Flowable, Thiolux, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available: Dithane M-45, Dithane F45 Rainshield, Fortuna 75WDG, Koverall, Mankocide, Manzate Flowable, Manzate Pro-stick, Penncozeb 75 DF, Penncozeb 80 WP, Roper DF Rainshield

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

10

1

 

3

Procure 480SC

(fludioxinil)

8 fl oz

18 fl oz

0

0.5

 

3

Rally 40WSP

(myclobutanil)

5 oz

20 oz

3

1

Supplemental label.

3

Sonoma 40WSP

(myclobutanil)

5 oz

20 oz

3

1

 

3

Trionic

(triflumazole)

8 fl oz

16 fl oz

0

0.5

No more than 2 applications per season.

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7

Fontelis

(pentiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime

(pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to different mode of action. No more than 2 applications at max rate. Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Equation SC, Quadris, Satori, Tetraban, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

13

Quintec

(quinoxyfen)

6 fl oz

24 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

Pythium damping off

4

Sebring 318FS

Sebring 480FS

(metalaxyl)

0.75 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Ridomil Gold SL

         

Pythium seedling blight

4

Acquire

Allegiance FL

(metalaxyl)

0.75 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Apron XL

(mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed

       

4

Metastar 2E

(metalaxyl)

8 pt

     

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches.

Pythium seedling diseases

4

Ridomil Gold

Ridomil Gold GR

Ultra Flourish

(mefenoxam)

2 pt

40 lb

4 pt

 

2

2

2

 

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

4 & 11

Uniform

(fludioxonil)

0.34 fl oz/1000 ft of row

1 appl.

0

 

Soil incorporated.

Rhizoctonia bottom rot

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available: Enclosure 4F, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4F

2 pt

6 pt

14

1

 

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Apply at critical timing for disease suppression.

See Extension guidelines for best application.

Rhizoctonia

7

Endura

(boscalid)

11 oz

22 oz

14

0.5

 

19

OSO 5%SC

(polyoxin D zinc salt)

13 fl oz

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

Sclerotinia drop

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available: Enclosure 4F, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4F

2 pt

6 pt

14

1

 

7

Endura

(boscalid)

11 oz

22 oz

14

0.5

 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 

7

Kenja 400 SC

(isofetamid)

12.3 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

14

0.5

Make first application after emergence and second at thinning.

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation

(fluopyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime

(pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to different mode of action. No more than 2 applications at max rate.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

12

Cannonball

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

28 oz

0

0.5

Apply after emergence and after thinning.

14

Botran 7F

(dichloran)

5.33 lb

5.33 lb

14

0.5

 

19

OSO 5%SC

(polyoxin D zinc salt)

13 fl oz

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

Septoria

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

7

Fontelis 1.67SC

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 

7 & 11

Merivon

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of actions.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

13.4 fl oz

14

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications without rotating to different mode of action. No more than 2 applications at max rate.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

16 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of actions.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Equation SC, Quadris, Satori, Tetraban, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides with dissimilar modes of actions.

Various seedling diseases

12

Maxim 4FS

Spirato 480 FS (fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb of seed

     

Seed treatment only.

 

4 & 11

Uniform

0.34 fl oz/1000 lb of seed

1 appl.

 

0

Soil incorporated.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate the same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2019; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 11. 

Spinach fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical

(Active Ingredients)

Max Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

     

Appl.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

 

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Anthracnose

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG,

Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cueva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Mastercop, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Previsto, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

 

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 
 

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

 

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

 

11

Quadris

6 fl oz

15.5 fl oz

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Alternaria

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7 & 11

Luna Sensation (flupyram + trifloxystobin)

7.6 fl oz

15.3 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

No more than 2 sequential applications without moving to dissimilar mode of action. May cause leaf cupping.

9 & 12

Switch

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

See label for details.

11

Quadris

6 fl oz

15.5 fl oz

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Downy mildew

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, Champion++, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count

N, Cuerva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Kop-hydroxide, Mastercop, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

 

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 
 

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Suffa, Sulfur 90W, Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

 

U15

Orondis Gold 200

(oxathiapiprolin)

19.2 fl oz

38.4 fl oz

0

4 hr

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis Ultra if applied using soil applications. Be aware of plant-back restrictions.

 

U15

Orondis Ultra

(oxathiapiprolin)

4.8 fl oz

19.2 fl oz

0

4 hr

Do not make foliar applications with Orondis

Ultra if Orondis Gold was applied using soil applications and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

 

4

Ridomil Gold SL

(mefenoxam)

0.25 pt

0.5 pt

21

2

Shank application. A total of two applications may be made.

 

4 & M1

Ridomil Gold/Copper

(mefenoxam + copper hydroxide)

2 lb

4 lb

21

2

Follow Ridomil Gold EC at planting. Apply no more than 2 foliar applications.

 

7 & 11

Merivon Xemium

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Apply only in water with no adjuvants or tank mixtures. Alternate with dissimilar modes of

action.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

48 oz

0

0.5

Limit is 3 applications/crop & alternate chemistry.

 

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Equation SC, Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Reason

(fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

21

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar)

0.75 oz

2.25 oz

7

0.5

See label for specific conditions.

(Suppression only)

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

21 fl oz

42 fl oz

1

0.5

2 applications allowed per crop cycle. Insecticide also controls aphids, thrips, etc.

 

27

Curzate 60DF (cymoxanil)

5 oz

30 oz

1

0.5

Use only in combination with a broad spectrum protectant such as copper fungicides.

 

27 & 11

Tanos 50DF

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

72 oz

3

0.5

Do not alternate or tank mix with another FRAC group 11 fungicide.

 

33

Aliette80WDG

Legion 80WDG

Linebacker 80WDG (fosetyl-Al)

5 lb

35 lb

3

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides or adjuvants.

 

33

(mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available: Alude, Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungi-phite, K-Phite, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Phostrol, Prophyt, Rampart, Reveille

3 qt

 

0

4 hr

See label for details.

 

40

Revus 2.08F

(mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

1

4 hr

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications. See label for soil applications.

 

40

Forum

(dimethomorph)

6 fl oz

18 fl oz

0

0.5

Must be tank mixed with another fungicide when used against downy mildew. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications.

 

40 & 45

Zampro SC

(dimethomorph + ametoctradin)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not exceed 2 sequential applications.

 

43

Presidio 4L

(fluopicolide)

4 oz

1 pt

2

0.5

Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of a different mode of action. See label for rotational restrictions.

White rust

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG,

Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, Champion++, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cuerva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000,

Kocide 4.5 LF, Kop-hydroxide, Mastercop, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

 

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 
 

4

Ridomil Gold SL

(mefenoxam)

0.25 pt

0.5 pt

21

2

Shank application. A total of two applications may be made.

 

4 & M1

Ridomil Gold/Copper WP

(mefenoxam + copper hydroxide)

2 lb

4 lb

21

2

Follow Ridomil Gold EC at planting. Apply no more than 2 foliar applications.

 

7 & 11

Merivon Xemium

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Apply only in water with no adjuvants or tank mixtures. Alternate with dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Quadris

6 fl oz

15.5 fl oz

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

11

Reason

(fenamidone)

8.2 fl oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate every other application with a fungicide of dissimilar mode of action.

 

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

21

Ranman

(cyazofamid)

2.75 fl oz

13.75 fl oz

0

0.5

Do not make more than 3 sequential applications.

 

33

Aliette80WDG

Legion 80WDG

Linebacker 80WDG

(fosetyl-Al)

5 lb

35 lb

3

0.5

Caution should be used when applying in a management program including copper fungicides or adjuvants.

 

43

Presidio 4L

(fluopicolide)

4 oz

1 pt

2

0.5

Must be tank-mixed with a fungicide of a different mode of action. See label for rotational restrictions.

 

P

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar)

0.75 oz

2.25 oz

7

0.5

See label for specific conditions.

Various leaf spots

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ WG, Champ Formula 2, Champ WP, COC DF, COC WP, Copper Count N, Cuerva, Cuprofix Ultra, Kentan DF, Kocide DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide 4.5 LF, Nordox, Nordox 75 WG, NuCop 50WP, NuCop 3L, NuCop HB, NuCop DF, Top Cop w/ Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

 

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

 

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available: Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABELS

1

1

Do not apply during periods of warm weather. Do not apply within 2 weeks of an oil spray.

3

Rhyme

(flutriafol)

7 fl oz

28 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

3 & 11

Topguard EQ

(flutriafol + azoxystrobin)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz

7

0.5

No more than 4 applications per season.

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications.

7 & 11

Merivon SC

(pyraclostrobin + fluxapyroxad)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

1

0.5

Apply only in water with no adjuvants or tank mixtures. Alternate with dissimilar modes of action.

7 & 12

Miravis Primo (pydiflumetnfen + fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

No more than 2 sequential applications without moving to dissimilar mode of action.

9 & 12

Swithch 62.5WDG (cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicide with dissimilar modes of action after 2 applications.

11

Quadris

6 fl oz

15.5 fl oz

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

16 oz

64 oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

11

Reason

(fenamidone)

8.2 oz

24.6 fl oz

2

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Damping-off

M3

Defiant 75WP

(thiram)

5.3 oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Ridomil Gold SL

(mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Apply at seeding in a 7”–12” band on soil over seed furrow.

4 & 11

Uniform

(azoxystrobin + mefenoxam)

0.34 fl oz/ 1000 ft row

   

0

Make only 1 application per season at planting.

Pythium seedling blight

4

Acquire

Allegiance FL

(metalaxyl)

0.75 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Sebring 2.65ST

(metalaxyl)

0.75 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

1

Seed treatment only.

4

Apron XL LS

(mefenoxam)

0.64 fl oz/100 lb seed

   

2

Seed treatment only.

4

Metastar

(metalaxyl)

8 pt

   

2

Apply as a broadcast soil application and incorporate into top 2 inches. See label for directions.

Pythium seedling diseases

4

Ridomil Gold SL

(mefenoxam)

2 pt

   

2

Apply at seeding in a 7”–12” band on soil over seed furrow.

4

Ridomil Gold GR

(mefenoxam)

40 lb

   

2

 

4

Ultra Flourish

(mefenoxam)

4 pt

   

2

See label for specifics regarding preplant incorporated applications and surface applications at the time of planting.

4 & 11

Uniform

(azoxystrobin + mefenoxam)

0.34 fl oz/1000 ft row

   

0

Make only 1 application per season at planting.

Powdery mildew

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications.

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WDG

(fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

See label for details.

19

OSO 5%SC

(polyoxin D zinc salt)

13 fl oz

84 fl oz

0

4 hr

See label for details.

21A

Torac

(tolfenpyrad)

21 fl oz

42 fl oz

1

0.5

2 applications allowed per crop cycle. Insecticide also controls aphids, thrips, etc.

Stemphylium leaf spot

7 & 12

Miravis Prime (pydiflumetofen; fludioxonil)

13.4 fl oz

36.5 fl oz

14

0.5

No more than 2 sequential applications without moving to dissimilar mode of action.

11

(azoxystrobin)

Various brands available: Equation SC, Quadris, Satori, Willowood Azoxy

15.5 fl oz

2.88 qt

0

4 hr

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

Various seedling diseases

12

Maxim 4FS (fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb of seed

   

0.5

Seed treatment only.

21

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar)

0.75 oz

2.25 oz

7

0.5

Do not apply to young seedlings.

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 46) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate the same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2019; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 12. 

Nonfumigant nematicides for leafy vegetables in Florida.

Product

Application Directions

Nimitz (a.i. fluensulfone)

All applications must be incorporated either physically or via drip or overhead irrigation. Make preplant applications at a rate of 3.5 to 7 pints, (56.0 to 80.0 fl oz) per acre, a minimum of seven days before planting. Do not plant any unlisted crops into treated land for 365 days after application of the product. Do not apply more than one application per crop and no more than 112 fl oz of product per acre per year (365 days). Provides control only for nematodes. Growers applying Nimitz must consult the product label to observe the plant-back (recropping) intervals for a variety of leafy vegetables and brassica crops, onions, bananas, sugarcane, and other crops.

Table 13. 

Fumigant nematicides for leafy vegetables in Florida.

Nematicide

Broadcast Application1

In-the-Row Applications

Gallons or lb per Acre

fl oz/1000 ft/Chisel-Spaced 12” Apart

Telone II2,3

9 to 12 gal

26 to 35

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-172,3

10.8 to 17.1 gal

31.8 to 50.2

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-352,3

13 to 20.5 gal

38 to 60

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Pic-Clor 60

19 to 31.5 gal

57 to 90

For any row spacing, application rates should never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Vapam HL

75 gal

-

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions and procedures.

KPam HL

60 gal

-

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions.

Allyl Isothiocyanate

(AITC)

Dominus

40 gal

-

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions

1 Gallons/acre and fl oz/1000 feet provided only for mineral soils. Higher rates may be possible for heavier-textured (loam, silt, clay) or highly organic soils.

2 All of the fumigants mentioned are for retail sale and use only by state certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision. New supplemental labeling for the Telone products must be in the hands of the user at the time of application. See new label details for additional use restrictions based on soil characteristics, buffer zones, requirements for Fumigant Management Plans (FMP) and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), mandatory Good Agricultural Practices (GAP’s), product and applicator training certification, and other uses and rate recommendations.

3 Higher application rates are possible in the presence of cyst-forming nematodes.

Rates are believed to be correct for products named, and similar products of other brand names, when applied to mineral soils. Higher rates are required for muck (organic) soils. However, the grower has the final responsibility to see that each product is used legally; read the label of the product to be sure that you are using it properly.

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS728, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 1995. Revised April 2020. This is Chapter 9 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2020–2021 edition. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Ramdas Kanissery, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida Research and Education Center; Richard N. Raid, professor, UF/IFAS Everglades REC; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Julien Beuzelin, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Everglades REC; and Christian F. Miller, Extension agent I, UF/IFAS Extension Palm Beach County; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.