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Publication #HS730

Chapter 12. Onion, Leek, and Chive Production in Florida1

Peter J. Dittmar, Eugene J. McAvoy, Richard N. Raid, Pamela Roberts, Hugh A. Smith, Xavier Martini, Johan Desaeger, Shouan Zhang, and Lincoln Zotarelli2

This is Chapter 12 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2020–2021 edition. The tables and most current version of this chapter may be found at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/cv/cv29900.pdf.

Botany and Planting

OnionAllium cepa, Alliaceae (Amaryillidaceae)

LeekAllium ampeloprasum

ChiveAllium schoenoprasum

Bunching onionAllium fistulosum

Table 1. 

Planting information for onion and allies.

Planting Dates

Seeded

Transplanted

North Florida

mid-Sept–mid-Nov

Nov–Jan

Central Florida

Oct

Dec–Jan

South Florida

Oct

Dec–Jan

Planting Information

Distance between rows (in.)

14–18

14–18

Distance between plants (in.)

3–4

4–6

Seeding depth (in.)

0.25–0.5

-

Seed per acre (lb)

3–4

1

Days to maturity

100–130

100–130

Plant populations (acre)

149,343

112,123

Cultivars

Table 2. 

Onion and leek cultivars.

Onion

Dawn (H)

Prowler (H)

Sweet Harvest (H)

Granex 33 (H)

Red Hunter

Sweet Success (H)

Pirate (H)

Savannah Sweet (H)

Vidurra (H)

Plethora (H)

Sweet Caroline (H)

 

Bunching Onion

Perfecto Blanco

Tokyo Long White

White Portugal

Leeks

Chives

Lancelot

Tivi

Jolant

Megathon

Tornado

King Richard

Staro

Verina

H=hybrid

Tables

Table 3. 

Herbicides approved for managing weeds in onion.

Active Ingredient

lb a.i./A

Trade Name

Product/A

MOA

Code

Crops

Weeds Controlled/Remarks

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

*** PREEMERGENCE ***

Bensulide

5.0–6.0

(Prefar) 4 E

5–6 qt

8

Dry bulb vegetables: onion, garlic, shallot

Annual broadleaf and grass control. Incorporate or irrigate 1 to 2 in. deep within 36 hr of application. Consult label for rotational restrictions.

Bromoxynil

0.25–0.38

(Buctril) 2 EC

1.0–1.5 pt

(Buctril) 4 EC

0.5–0.75 pt

6

Onion (dry bulb)

Broadleaf weeds. Preemergence is restricted to muck soils containing greater than 10% organic matter. Apply at least 3 to 4 days prior to emergence. Weeds should not exceed the 4-leaf stage, 2 in. in height or 1 in. in diameter.

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Onion, garlic, leek, chive, shallot

Apply as a preplant burndown for emerged broadleaf weeds. Use crop oil concentrate, methylated seed oil, or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. Maximum rate of 0.096 lb a.i./A per season. No pretransplant interval.

DCPA

4.5–6.0

(Dacthal) W-75

6–8 lb

(Dacthal) 6 F

6–8 lb

3

Onion (dry bulb, green), leek, shallot

Annual grasses and certain broadleaf control. Apply at seeding or planting. Maximum rate of 10.5 lb a.i./A per season.

Flumioxazin

up to 0.06

(Chateau) 51 WDG

up to 2 fl oz

14

Garlic, onion (dry bulb)

Broadleaf control. Apply to transplanted onions between the 2- and 6-leaf stage. Apply to direct seeded onions between the 3- and 6-leaf stage.

Glyphosate

(various formulations)

consult label

9

Onion, garlic, leek, chive, shallot

Control of emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Consult individual labels for restrictions.

Oxyfluorfen

2

(Goal 2XL) 2 EC

2.0 pt

(GoalTender) 4 EC

1.0 pt

14

Onion (dry bulb), garlic (dry bulb)

Certain broadleaf weeds. Transplanted only. Apply within 2 days of transplanting. Necrotic lesions, twisting, or stunting of plants can occur if applications are made during cool, wet weather or prior to the full development of the true leaves.

Paraquat

0.5–1.0

(Gramoxone) 2 SL

2–4 pt

22

Onion (dry bulb)

Controls emerged weeds. Apply prior, during, or after planting, but before crop emergence. Only 2 applications a season. Use a nonionic surfactant.

Paraquat

0.63–1.0

(Gramoxone) 2 SL

2.5–4.0 pt

(Firestorm) 3 SL

1.7–2.7 pt

22

Onion (seeded), garlic

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown. A maximum of 1 lb a.i./A per season.

Pelargonic acid

(Scythe) 4.2 EC

3%–10% v/v

27

Onion, garlic, leek, chive, shallot

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply before emergence of crop. Product is a contact, nonselective, foliar-applied herbicide. There is no residual activity.

Pendimethalin

mineral

0.5–0.75

muck

1.0–2.0

(Prowl) 3.3 EC

mineral 1.2–1.8 pt

muck 2.4–4.8 pt

(Prowl H20) 3.8

mineral 1.0–1.5 pt

muck 2.0–4.0 pt

3

Onion (dry bulb), shallot (dry bulb), garlic

Mineral soils: Apply when crop has 2 to 9 true leaves. Muck soils: May be applied as sequential application: preemergence through loop stage, early postemergence (2 to 6 true leaf stage), late postemergence (6 to 9 true leaf stage). Do not exceed 5.9 lb a.i./A in a growing season. PHI 45 days.

Pyraflufen

0.001–0.003

(ET Herbicide/Defoliant)

0.5–2.0 fl oz

14

Bulb vegetables

Emerged broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply as a preplant burndown treatment.

*** POSTEMERGENCE ***

Bromoxynil

0.25–0.38

(Buctril) 2 EC

1.0–1.5 pt

(Buctril) 4 EC

0.5–1.5 pt

6

Onion (dry bulb)

Broadleaf weeds. Soil and onion leaves should be dry before application. Waxy coating on leaves reduces chances for injury. Varieties vary in sensitivity, so use on a trial basis.

Bromoxynil

0.38–0.5

(Buctril) 2 EC

1.5–2.0 pt

6

Garlic

Broadleaf weeds. Apply after emergence but before 12 in. tall. Weeds are most susceptible up to the 4-leaf stage or 2 in. height or 1 in. wide. PHI 112 days.

Carfentrazone

up to 0.031

(Aim) 1.9 EW

up to 2 fl oz

(Aim) 2.0 EC

up to 2 fl oz

14

Onion (dry bulb), garlic, leek, chive, shallot

Emerged broadleaf control. Post-direct hooded application to row middles for burndown of emerged weeds. Use crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant at recommended rates. PHI 0 days.

Clethodim

0.09–0.25

0.07–0.25

(Arrow, Select) 2 EC

6–16 fl oz

(Select Max) 1 EC

9–32 fl oz

1

Onion (dry bulb), garlic, shallot (dry bulb)

Annual and perennial grass control. Some labels include green onion. Consult label for use of a crop oil concentrate or nonionic surfactant. PHI 45 days.

Clethodim

0.09–0.13

(Arrow, Select) 2 EC

6–8 fl oz

(Select Max) 1 EC

12–16 fl oz

1

Chive, leek

Emerged annual and perennial grasses. Consult labels rate of COC or NIS. Do not apply more than 0.5 lb a.i./A per season. Select Max is not registered in leek. PHI 14 days.

DCPA

4.5–6.0

(Dacthal) W-75

6–8 lb

(Dacthal) 6 F

6–8 lb

3

Onion (dry bulb, green), leek, shallot

Annual grasses and certain broadleaf control. Apply at layby up to 14 weeks after planting. If weeds have emerged, then cultivate or hand weed. Maximum rate of 10.5 lb a.i./A per season.

Dimethenamid-p

up to 1.0

(Outlook) 6 EC

up to 21 fl oz

15

Onion (dry bulb), garlic, leek, shallot (dry bulb, green)

Broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply after the 2-true-leaf stage. Apply as a single application or split application. Split application of 10–14 fl oz, followed by 7 to 10 fl oz/A with 14 days between applications. Do not exceed 21 fl oz/A per growing season. PHI 30 days.

Fluazifop

0.188

(Fusilade DX)

12 fl oz

1

Onion (dry bulb), garlic

Annual and perennial grass weeds. Do not apply more than 48 fl oz/A per season. Include a COC or NIS. PHI 45 days.

Oxyfluorfen

0.5

(Goal 2 XL) 2 EC

0.5 pt direct seeded

(GoalTender) 4 EC

0.25 pt direct seeded

14

Onion (dry bulb), garlic (dry bulb)

Certain broadleaf weeds. Direct seeded only. Apply after the crop has 2 true leaves. Multiple treatments can be applied and do not exceed 0.5 lb a.i./A. Necrotic lesions, twisting, or stunting of plants can occur if applications are made during cool, wet weather or prior to development of true leaves. PHI 60 days.

Sethoxydim

0.19–0.28

(Poast) 1.5 EC

1.0–1.5 pt

1

Onion (dry bulb, green), garlic, leek, shallot

Grass weeds. Include a surfactant. Do not apply more than 4.5 pt/A per season. PHI 30 days.

Treflan

0.35–0.5

(Treflan) 4 EC

0.75–1.0 pt

(Treflan TR-10)

3.75–5.0 lb

3

Onion (dry bulb)

Broadleaf and grass weeds. Apply at layby to the soil surface between onion rows. Remove weeds that are present. Do not apply in muck soils. PHI 60 days.

Table 4. 

Insecticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of garlic, leeks, and shallots.

Insect or Mite Pest

MOA Code1

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

*Restricted

Rate

Product/Acre

REI

(Hours)

Days to Harvest

Remarks2

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Aphids

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.5 pt

8F: 1–1.56 pt

24

3

Leeks, shallots, garlic. Three applications per year for garlic, two for all others.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season.

Leeks, shallots, and garlic.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than

15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

-

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallons per acre.

4

0

 

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Leek, garlic, shallot

-

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Beet armyworm

1A

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5 pt

SP: 0.5 lb

48

7

Garlic only.

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–5.0 fl oz

4

1

No more than 4 foliar applications or 15.4 fl oz of product per acre per crop. For entire Bulb Vegetable Group.

Caterpillars

(includes cutworms and armyworms)

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb and garlic only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season.

Leeks, shallots, and garlic.

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–12.8 oz—garlic

12

1

Garlic

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–8 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year (29 fl oz product). For leeks, garlic, and shallots. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant.

11A

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

1.0–2.0 lb

4

0

Apply when larvae are small for best control.

11A

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. For organic production.

11A

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

11A

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.25–1.5 lb

4

0

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed.

11A

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.25–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

11A

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.12–1.5 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4–12 fl oz

4

1

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Leek, garlic, and shallots

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Fire ants

7A

Extinguish

(S-methoprene)

1–1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

7C

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5–2.0 lb

12

1

Dry bulb only.

Flea beetles

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1 Soil: N/A

Garlic

(Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B)

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–8 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year (29 fl oz product). For leeks, garlic, and shallots. OMRI-listed.

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

Liriomyza

Leafminers

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Garlic only. Label is registered only for garlic. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Leeks, shallots, garlic.

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1 Soil: N/A

Garlic

(Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B)

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–8 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year (29 fl oz product). For leeks, garlic, and shallots. OMRI- listed.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant.

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.5 fl oz

12

30

Must be used with a nonionic activator-type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season.

17

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6 applications per crop.

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb a.i. per acre of cyazypyr- or cyantraniliprole-containing products per season. Toxic to bees. Do not allow drift to blooming crops or weeds.

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Onion maggot

1B

*Diazinon AG500

*Diazinon 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 2–4 qt

50W: 4–8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one soil application per year. For leeks, garlic, and shallots.

1B

Lorsban 75WG;

*Advanced

(chlorpyrifos)

75WG: 1.33 lb Advanced:

depends on row spacing

24

60

Dry bulb only. One application per year.

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.5 pt

8F: 1–1.56 pt

leeks, shallots, garlic: 24

3

Leeks, shallots, and garlic. Three applications per year for garlic, two for all others.

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Garlic only. Label is registered only for garlic. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Leeks, shallots, and garlic.

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz—onions

6.4–12.8 oz—garlic

12

1

Garlic

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Plant bugs

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

-

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Stink bugs

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Garlic only. Label is registered only for garlic. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Leeks, shallots, and garlic.

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz—onions

6.4–12.8 oz—garlic

12

1

Garlic

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1 Soil: N/A

Garlic

(Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B)

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

Thrips

(check label for species controlled)

1A

*Lannate LV; *SP

(methomyl)

LV: 1.5–3.0 pt

SP: 0.5–1.0 lb

48

7

 

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.5 pt

8F: 1–1.56 pt

leeks, shallots, garlic: 24

3

Leeks, shallots, and garlic. Three applications per year for garlic, two for all others.

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Garlic only. Label is registered only for garlic. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Garlic. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Leeks, shallots, and garlic.

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz—onions

6.4–12.8 oz—garlic

12

1

Bulb onions and garlic

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (garlic). Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

14.0 fl oz

12

21

Apply no more than 14 fl oz per acre per season.

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

5.0–8.0 oz

12

7

No more than 4 applications or 32 oz of product per acre per season.

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1 Soil: N/A

Garlic

(Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B)

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–8 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year (29 fl oz product). For leeks, garlic, and shallots. OMRI-listed.

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant.

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.5 fl oz

12

30

Must be used with a nonionic activator-type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season.

7C

Knack IGR

(pyriproxyfen)

8 fl oz

12

3

Maximum of 2 applications, at least 14 days apart. No activity against adult insects.

28

Exirel

(cyantraniliprole)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Label contains pollinator protection warnings.

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

drip: 6.75–10 fl oz

in-furrow at planting:10–13.5 fl oz

4

1

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

-

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

0.25–1 quart per acre. Apply in sufficient water to cover foliage, typically 5–100 gallons per acre.

4

0

 

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Leek, garlic, and shallot

-

M-Pede 49% EC

Soap, insecticidal

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

-

Requiem EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

1.5–3.0 qt

4

0

Begin as soon as thrips are seen.

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Wireworms

1B

*Diazinon AG500

*Diazinon 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 2–4 qt

50W: 4–8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one soil application per year. For leeks, garlic, and shallots.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 9.4, March 2020. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain subgroups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with the same number) indicate the same active ingredient or a similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. - = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI-listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 5. 

Insecticides registered for managing insect pests of onions.

Pest

MOA

Code1

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

*Restricted

Rate

(Product/Acre)

REI

(Hours)

Days to Harvest

Remarks2

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Aphids

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.5 pt

8F: 1.5 pt

12

3

Onions, bulb and green. Two applications per year. Suppression only.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions and garlic), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season. Suppression only.

 

-

Azaguard

(azadirachtin)

10–16 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

0.5–2 qt/100 gal

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

 

-

M-Pede

(potassium salts of fatty acids)

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed.

 

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

 

-

Grandevo

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

1–3 lb

4

0

Onion (bulb and green), and shallot

Caterpillars

(includes cutworms and armyworms)

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb and garlic only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Bulb onions. Maximum 1 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–6 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year and no more than 29 fl oz product. For onions, bulb and green. OMRI-listed.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

5–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant. No more than 30 fl oz per acre per year.

 

11A

Agree WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

1.0–2.0 lb

4

0

Apply when larvae are small for best control.

 

11A

Biobit HP

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. Can be used in the greenhouse. For organic production.

 

11A

Crymax WDG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Use high rate for armyworms. Treat when larvae are young.

 

11A

Deliver

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.25–1.5 lb

4

0

Use higher rates for armyworms. OMRI-listed.

 

11A

DiPel DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.25–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Good coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

 

11A

Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies kurstaki)

0.12–1.5 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. OMRI-listed.

 

11A

Xentari DF

(Bacillus thuringiensis

subspecies aizawai)

0.5–2.0 lb

4

0

Treat when larvae are young. Thorough coverage is essential. May be used in the greenhouse. Can be used in organic production.

 

18

Intrepid 2F

(methoxyfenozide)

4–8 fl oz

4

1

Green onion subgroup only. Do not make more than 6 applications per year and do not apply more than 64 fl oz per acre per year.

 

28

Coragen

(chlorantraniliprole)

3.5–7.5 fl oz

4

1

Beet armyworm only. No more than 4 foliar applications or 15.4 fl oz of product per acre per crop.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

4

0

OMRI-listed.

Fire ants

7A

Extinguish

(S-methoprene)

1–1.5 lb

4

0

Slow-acting IGR (insect growth regulator). Best applied early spring and fall where crop will be grown. Colonies will be reduced after three weeks and eliminated after 8 to 10 weeks. May be applied by ground equipment or aerially.

 

7C

Esteem Ant Bait

(pyriproxyfen)

1.5–2.0 lb

12

1

Dry bulb only.

Flea beetles

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1

Bulb and green onions (Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B). Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–6 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year and no more than 29 fl oz product. For onions, bulb and green. OMRI-listed.

Leafminers

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz—onions

12

1

Bulb onions. Maximum 1 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 5.25–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1

Soil: N/A

Bulb and green onions (Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B). Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–6 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year and no more than 29 fl oz product. For onions, bulb and green. OMRI-listed.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

6–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant. No more than 30 fl oz per acre per year.

 

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.5 fl oz

12

30

Must be used with a nonionic activator-type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season.

 

17

Trigard

(cyromazine)

2.66 oz

12

7

Maximum of 6 applications per crop.

 

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb a.i. per acre of cyazypyr- or cyantraniliprole-containing products per season. Toxic to bees. Do not allow drift to blooming crops or weeds.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Onion maggot

1B

*Diazinon AG500

*Diazinon 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 2–4 qt

50W: 4–8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one soil application per year. For onions, bulb and green.

 

1B

Lorsban 75WG;

*Advanced

(chlorpyrifos)

75WG: 1.33 lb

Advanced: 32 fl oz

24

60

Dry bulb only. One application per year.

 

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2.5 pt

8F: 1.5 pt

12

3

Onions, bulb and green. No more than two applications per year.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.28 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Bulb onions. Maximum 1 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions and garlic), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

 

-

Neemix 4.5 EC

(azadirachtin)

4–16 fl oz

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Plant bugs

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions and garlic), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

 

-

M-Pede

(potassium salts of fatty acids)

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

Stink bugs

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

2.4–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Bulb onions. Maximum 1 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

 

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 3.5–7.0 fl oz

12

1

Bulb and green onions (Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B). Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

Thrips

(check label for species controlled)

1B

Malathion 5EC, 8F

(malathion)

5EC: 1.5–2 pt

8F: 1.56 pt

12

3

Onions, bulb and green. No more than two applications per year.

 

3A

*Ambush 25W

(permethrin)

6.4–19.2 oz

12

1

Dry bulb only. Maximum of 2 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Declare Insecticide

(gamma-cyhalothrin)

0.77–1.54 fl oz

24

14

Bulb onions. Maximum of 0.77 pt per acre per season.

 

3A

*Mustang

(zeta-cypermethrin)

3.2–4.3 oz

12

7

Do not apply more than 21.5 oz per acre per season. Onions, bulb and green.

 

3A

*Pounce 25 WP

(permethrin)

9.6–19.2 oz

12

1

Bulb onions. Maximum 1 lb a.i./acre per season.

 

3A

*Warrior II

(lambda-cyhalothrin)

0.96–1.92 fl oz

24

14

For bulb crops only (onions and garlic), not green onions. Do not apply more than 15.36 fl oz per acre per season.

 

4A

Admire Pro

(imidacloprid)

14.0 fl oz

12

21

Apply no more than 14 fl oz per acre per season.

 

4A

Assail 30SG

(acetamiprid)

5.0–8.0 oz

12

7

No more than 4 applications or 32 oz of product per acre per season.

 

4A

Scorpion 35SL

(dinotefuran)

Foliar: 5.25–7.0 fl oz

Soil: 8.75–10.5 fl oz

12

Foliar: 1

Soil: N/A

Bulb and green onions (Crop Groups 3-07A and 3-07B). Do not apply more than 10.5 fl oz per acre per season.

 

5

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

3–8 fl oz

4

1

No more than 5 applications per year (29 fl oz product). For onions, bulb and green. OMRI-listed.

 

5

Radiant SC

(spinetoram)

6–10 fl oz

4

1

Use with an adjuvant. No more than 30 fl oz per acre per year.

 

6

*Agri-Mek SC

(abamectin)

1.75–3.5 fl oz

12

30

Must be used with a nonionic activator-type wetting, spreading, and/or penetrating adjuvant, not a binder-sticker-type adjuvant. Maximum of 10.25 fl oz per acre per season.

 

7C

Knack IGR

(pyriproxyfen)

8 fl oz

12

3

Maximum of 2 applications, at least 14 days apart. No activity against adult insects. Onion (dry bulb only).

 

23

Movento

(spirotetramat)

5 fl oz

24

3

No more than 10 fl oz per season.

 

28

Exirel

(cyazypyr)

13.5–20.5 fl oz

12

1

Do not apply more than 0.4 lb a.i. per acre of cyazypyr- or cyantraniliprole-containing products per season. Toxic to bees. Rotate with other effective modes of action. Begin making applications when populations are low. If populations are above threshold, use an effective knockdown product prior to applying Exirel.

 

28

Verimark

(cyantraniliprole)

Drip chemigation: 6.75–10 fl oz

4

1

Do not apply more than 2 drip chemigation applications. Begin drip applications when populations first appear. Rotate with other effective modes of action.

 

-

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

1–2 pt, up to 3.5 if needed

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator. OMRI-listed.

 

-

Azatin XL

(azadirachtin)

5–21 fl oz

4

0

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

 

-

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana)

0.5–2 qt/100 gal

4

0

May be used in greenhouses. Contact dealer for recommendations if an adjuvant must be used. Not compatible in tank mix with fungicides.

 

-

M-Pede

(potassium salts of fatty acids)

1%–2% v/v

12

0

OMRI-listed.

 

-

Requiem EC

(extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides)

1.5–3.0 qt

4

0

Begin as soon as thrips are seen.

 

-

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

0.5%–2.0% v/v

4

0

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment. OMRI-listed.

Wireworms

1B

*Diazinon AG500

*Diazinon 50W

(diazinon)

AG500: 3–4 qt

50W: 4–8 lb

72

preplant

Do not make more than one soil application per year. For onions, bulb and green.

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 8.2, March 2017. Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain subgroups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with the same number) indicate the same active ingredient or a similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. - = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. OMRI-listed: Listed by the Organic Materials Review Institute for use in organic production.

* Restricted use insecticide.

Table 6. 

Onion fungicides ordered by disease and then FRAC group according to their mode of action.

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Fungicide Group1

Chemical

(Active Ingredients)

Max Rate/Acre

Min. Days to

Remarks2

Appl.

Season

Harvest

Reentry

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical.

Please refer to Chapter 19 for information on biopesticides, including materials labeled for certified organic production.

Bacterial blight

(Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii)

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available:

Badge SC, Badge X2, Champ DP, Champ F2 FL, Champ WG, Cuprofix Ultra 40D, Cueva, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide 2000, Kocide 3000, Kocide DF, Kop-hydroxide, Master Cop, Nordox, Nordox 75WG, Nu-Cop 3L, Nu-Cop 50DF, Nu-Cop HB

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

0

Varies by product from 4 hr to 2 days

Frequent use of copper fungicides may cause foliar burn.

 

M1 & M3

Mankocide

(copper hydroxide + mancozeb)

2.25 lb

160 lb (per crop)

7

2

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

(Suppression only)

21

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar-S-methyl)

1 oz

4 oz

7

0.5

Do not apply to plants that are stressed or prior or within 5 days of transplanting. Suppression only.

(Suppression only)

27 & 11

Tanos

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

84 oz

3

0.5

See label.

Black mold

(Aspergillus niger)

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last application.

Botrytis leaf blight

(Botrytis squamosa)

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP, Roper DF

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many brands available:

Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo Zn, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720 EC, Echo 720, Echo 90 DF, Echo Zn, Equus 500 Zn, Equus 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate ZN

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7 (dry bulb)

14 (green)

1

 
 

M1 & M3

Mankocide

(copper hydroxide + mancozeb)

2.25 lb

160 lb (per crop)

7

2

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available:

Enclosure 4, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4 Flowable

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

 

(Suppression only)

3

(propiconazole)

Many brands available:

Amtide propiconazole 41.8% EC, Bumper 41.8 EC, Bumper ES, Fitness, Propicure, Propimax EC, Propistar EC, Shar-Shield PPZ, Tide Propiconazole EC, Tilt

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

See label

0.5

 
 

7 & 3

Aprovia Top

(difenoconazole + benzovindiflupyr)

10.5 fl oz

54.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Adjuvant recommended. Do not exceed 4 applications per year.

 

3 & 7

Luna Experience

(fluopyram + tebuconazole)

12.8 fl oz

25.6 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

14

Botran 5F

(DCNA dicloran)

2 to 3.2 lb

See label

14

See labe

See label.

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC

(mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

See label

 

7 (dry bulb)

14/21 (green)

2

 
 

7

Endura

(boscalid)

6.8 oz

41 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

See label.

 

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility

(fluopyram + pyrimethanil)

27 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications per year.

 

7 & 11

Merivon Xemium

(fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

9

Vangard WG

(cyprodinil)

10 oz

28 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

 

9

Scala SC

(pyrimethanil)

18 fl oz

54 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

See label

92.3 fl oz

See label

4 hr

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

(Suppression only)

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

72 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 5 applications/crop.

 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with different fungicide groups. Make no more than 3 applications/crop. Do not tank mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

 

11 & 3

Quilt Xcel

(azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

21 fl oz (dry)

26 fl oz (green)

56 fl oz

14 (dry bulb)

0 (green)

0.5

Make only 1 application before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide.

 

11 & 7

Pristine

(pyraclostrobin + boscalid)

18.5 oz

111 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. No more than 6 appl./crop.

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last applications.

 

22 & M5

Zing

(zoxamide + chlorothanil)

30 fl oz

7.5 qt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 8 applications per year.

 

29

Omega 500F

(fluazinam)

1 pt

6 pt

7

2

 

Botrytis neck rot

(Botrytis allii)

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP, Roper DF

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many brands available:

Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo Zn, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720 EC, Echo 720, Echo 90 DF, Echo Zn, Equus 500 Zn, Equus 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate ZN

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7 (dry bulb)

14 (green)

1

 
 

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available:

Enclosure 4, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4 Flowable

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

 
 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 
 

7 & 3

Aprovia Top

(difenoconazole + benzovindiflupyr)

10.5 fl oz

54.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Adjuvant recommended. Do not exceed 4 applications per year.

(Suppression only)

9

Vangard WG

(cyprodinil)

10 oz

28 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

 

9

Scala SC

(pyrimethanil)

18 fl oz

54 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

(Suppression only)

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last application.

(Suppression only)

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with different fungicide groups. Make no more than 3 applications/crop. Do not tank mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

11 & 7

Pristine

(pyraclostrobin + boscalid)

18.5 oz

111 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. No more than 6 applications/crop.

 

14

Botran 5F

(DCNA dicloran)

3.5 lb

See label

14

See label

 
 

29

Omega 500F

(fluazinam)

1 pt

6 pt

7

2

 
 

U15 & M5

Orondis Opti

(oxathiapiprolin + chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

10 pt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications, and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

Cercospora leaf spot

(Cercospora duddiae)

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

Cladosporium leaf blotch

(Cladosporium allii)

7 & 3

Aprovia Top

(difenoconazole + benzovindiflupyr)

10.5 fl oz

54.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Adjuvant recommended. Do not exceed 4 applications per year.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

See label

92.3 fl oz

See label

4 hr

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with different fungicide groups. Make no more than 3 applications/crop. Do not tank-mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

11 & 3

Quilt Xcel

(azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

21 fl oz (dry)

26 fl oz (green)

56 fl oz

14 (dry bulb)

0 (green)

0.5

Make only 1 application before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide.

 

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

Damping-off

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available:

Enclosure 4, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4 Flowable

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

 
 

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

32 oz

7

0.5

 
 

12

Maxim 4FS

(fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb seed

     

Seed treatment only.

Downy mildew

(Peronospora destructor)

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available:Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ F2 FL, Champ WG, C-O-C DF, C-O-C WP, Copper Count N, Cuprofix Ultra 40D, Cueva, Kentan DF, Kocide 3000, Kocide 2000, Kocide DF, Nordox, Nordox 75WP, Nu Cop 3L, Nu Cop 50DF, Nu Cop HB

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

0

Varies from 4 hr to 2 days.

Frequent use of copper fungicides may cause foliar burn.

(Suppression only)

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many brands available:

Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo Zn, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720 EC, Echo 720, Echo 90 DF, Echo Zn, Equus 500 Zn, Equus 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate ZN

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

1

 
 

M1 & M2

Top Cop with sulfur

(basic copper sulfate + sulfur)

2–3 qt

See label

0

1

Do not use during hot weather or within 4 weeks of an oil application.

 

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

M1 & M3

Mankocide

(copper hydroxide + mancozeb)

2.25 lb

160 lb

(per crop)

7

2

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

U15 & M5

Orondis Opti

(oxathiapiprolin + chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

10 pt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential

applications and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

 

U15 & 40

Orondis Ultra

(oxathiapiprolin + mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz (dry)

24 fl oz (green)

7

4 hr

Do not make more than 2 sequential

applications and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

 

4 & M1

Ridomil Gold/Copper

(mefenoxam + copper hydroxide)

2 lb

 

7 (green)

10 (dry bulb)

2

Maximum 0.4 lb/A a.i. of metalaxyl or mefenoxam.

 

4 & M3

Ridomil Gold MZ WG

(mefenoxam + mancozeb)

2.5 lb

 

7 (dry bulb)

2

 
 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC

(mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

See label

 

7 (dry bulb)

14/21 (green)

2

 
 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

See label

92.3 fl oz

See label

4 hr

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11

Reason 500SC

(fenamidone)

5.5 fl oz

22 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

72 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 5 applications/crop.

 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 3 applications/crop. Do not tank-mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

11 & 3

Quilt Xcel

(azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

21 fl oz (dry)

26 fl oz (green)

56 fl oz

14 (dry bulb)

0 (green)

0.5

Make only 1 application before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide.

(Suppression only)

11 & 7

Pristine

(pyraclostrobin + boscalid)

18.5 oz

111 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. No more than 6 appl./crop.

(Suppression only)

21

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar-S-methyl)

1 oz

4 oz

7

0.5

Do not apply to plants that are stressed or prior or within 5 days transplanting.

 

21

Ranman

(cyazofamid)

3 fl oz

16.5 fl oz

0

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action. Do not make more than 3 sequential applications.

 

22 & M5

Zing

(zoxamide + chlorothanil)

30 fl oz

7.5 qt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 8 applications per year.

 

27 & 11

Tanos

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

84 oz

3

0.5

 
 

29

Omega 500F

(fluazinam)

1 pt

6 pt

7

2

 
 

33

Aliette WDG

Linebacker WDG

(fosetyl-Al)

3 lb

7 appl.

See label

See label

Do not tank mix with copper fungicides, adjuvants or foliar fertilizers.

 

33

(mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorous acid)

Many brands available:

Alude, Confine Extra, Fosiphite, Fungi-Phite, K-Phite 7LP, Oxiphos, Phiticide, Phostrol, Prophyt, Rampart, Reveille

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

0

4 hr

See label for details.

 

40

Forum

(dimethomorph)

6 oz

30 oz

0

0.5

Must be applied in a tank mix with another fungicide active against downy mildew. Do not make more than 2 sequential applications.

 

40

Revus

(mandipropamid)

8 fl oz

32 fl oz (dry)

24 fl oz (green)

7

4 hr

Make no more than 2 consecutive applications before switching to a non-group 40 fungicide. A silicon-based adjuvant must be added at recommended rates.

 

43

Presidio

(fluopicolide)

4 fl oz

 

2

0.5

Do not make more than 4 applications of Presidio per season.

 

40 & 45

Zampro

(dimethomorph + ametoctradin)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

0

0.5

See label.

Iris Yellow Spot

(Iris yellow spot virus)

(Suppression only)

21

Actigard 50WG

(acibenzolar-S-methyl)

1 oz

4 oz

7

0.5

Do not apply to plants that are stressed or prior

or within 5 days transplanting. Suppression only.

Powdery mildew

M2

(sulfur)

Many brands available:

Kumulus DF, Micro Sulf, Microfine Sulfur, Microthiol Disperss, Sulfur 90W, Yellow Jacket Wettable Sulfur

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

0

1

Do not use during hot weather or within 4 weeks of an oil application.

 

7 & 3

Aprovia Top

(difenoconazole + benzovindiflupyr)

10.5 fl oz

54.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Adjuvant recommended. Do not exceed 4 applications per year.

 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 
 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

 

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

72 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 5 appl./crop.

Purple blotch

(Alternaria porri)

M1

(copper compounds)

Many brands available: Badge SC, Badge X2, Basic Copper 53, C-O-C-S WDG, Champ DP, Champ F2 FL, Champ WG, C-O-C DF, C-O-C WP, Copper Count N, Cuprofix Ultra 40D, Cueva, Cuproxat, Kentan DF, Kocide 3000, Kocide 2000, Kocide DF, Kop- hydroxide, Nordox, Nordox 75WP, Nu Cop 3L, Nu Cop 50DF, Nu Cop HB

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

0

Varies from 4 hr to 2 days.

Frequent use of copper fungicides may cause foliar burn.

 

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP, Roper DF

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

M5

(chlorothalonil)

Many brands available:

Bravo Ultrex, Bravo Weather Stik, Bravo Zn, Chloronil 720, Chlorothalonil 720 EC, Echo 720, Echo 90 DF, Echo Zn, Equus 500 Zn, Equus 720 SST, Equus DF, Initiate 720, Initiate Zn

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

1

 
 

M1 & M2

Top Cop with sulfur

(basic copper sulfate + sulfur)

3 qt

See label

0

1

Do not use during hot weather or within 4 weeks of an oil application.

 

M1 & M3

Mankocide

(copper hydroxide + mancozeb)

2.25 lb

160 lb (per crop)

7

2

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available:

Enclosure 4, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4 Flowable

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

 
 

3

(propiconazole)

Many brands available:

Amtide propiconazole 41.8% EC, Bumper

41.8 EC, Bumper ES, Fitness, Propimax EC, Propistar EC, Tide Propionazole EC, Tilt, Shar-Shield PPZ

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

See label

0.5

 
 

3

(tebuconazole)

Many brands available:

Monsoon, Onset 3.6L, Orius 3.6 F,

Tebu-Crop 3.6F, Tebustar 3.6 L, Tebuzol 3.6F, Toledo

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

0.5

 
 

3 & 7

Luna Experience

(fluopyram + tebuconazole)

12.8 fl oz

25.6 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

3 & M5

Muscle ADV

(tebuconazole + chlorothalonil)

1.6 pt

3.2 pt

7

0.5

Apply in a protective fungicide schedule.

 

4 & M5

Ridomil Gold Bravo SC

(mefenoxam + chlorothalonil)

See label

 

7 (dry bulb)

14/21 (green)

2

 
 

7

Endura

(boscalid)

6.8 oz

41 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide

group.

 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

See label.

 

7 & 3

Aprovia Top

(difenoconazole + benzovindiflupyr)

10.5 fl oz

54.0 fl oz

7

0.5

Adjuvant recommended. Do not exceed 4 applications per year.

 

7 & 9

Luna Tranquility

(fluopyram + pyrimethanil)

27 fl oz

54.7 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications per year.

 

7 & 11

Merivon Xemium

(fluxapyroxad + pyraclostrobin)

11 fl oz

33 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate with fungicides of dissimilar modes of action.

 

9

Vangard WG

(cyprodinil)

10 oz

28 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

 

9

Scala SC

(pyrimethanil)

18 fl oz

54 fl oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

See label

92.3 fl oz

See label

4 hr

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11

Reason 500SC

(fenamidone)

5.5 fl oz

22 fl oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

72 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 5 applications/crop.

 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with different fungicide groups. Make no more than 3 applications/crop. Do not tank-mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

 

11 & 3

Quilt Xcel

(azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

21 fl oz (dry)

26 fl oz (green)

56 fl oz

14 (dry bulb)

0 (green)

0.5

Make only 1 application before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide.

 

11 & 7

Pristine

(pyraclostrobin + boscalid)

18.5 oz

111 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. No more than 6 appl./crop.

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last application.

 

22 & M5

Zing

(zoxamide + chlorothanil)

30 fl oz

7.5 qt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 8 applications per year.

 

27 & 11

Tanos

(cymoxanil + famoxadone)

8 oz

84 oz

3

0.5

 
 

29

Omega 500F

(fluazinam)

1 pt

6 pt

7

2

 

(Suppression only)

33

Aliette WDG

Linebacker WDG

(fosetyl-Al)

3 lb

7 appl.

See label

See label

Do not tank mix with copper fungicides, adjuvants, or foliar fertilizers.

 

U15 & M5

Orondis Opti

(oxathiapiprolin + chlorothalonil)

2.5 pt

10 pt

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 sequential applications, and do not exceed more than 33% of all fungicide applications with Orondis.

Pythium damping-off

4

(metalaxyl)

Many brands available: Allegiance, Aquire, MetaStar 2E, Sebring 2.65 ST, Sebring 318 FS, Sebring 480 FS

         
 

4

(mefenoxam)

Many brands available: Apron XL, Ridomil Gold EC, Ridomil Gold SL, Ultra Flourish

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

N/A

2

 
 

11 & 4

Uniform

(azoxystrobin + mefenoxam)

See label

       

Rhizoctonia damping off

11

Dynasty

(azoxystrobin)

0.38 fl oz/100 lb seed

See label

See label

4 hr

Seed treatment only.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

         
 

11 & 4

Uniform

(azoxystrobin + mefenoxam)

See label

       

Rust

(Puccinia allii)

3

(tebuconazole)

Many brands available:

Monsoon, Onset 3.6L, Orius 3.6 F,

Tebu-Crop 3.6F, Tebustar 3.6 L, Tebuzol 3.6F, Toledo

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

0.5

 
 

3 & M5

Muscle ADV

(tebuconazole + chlorothalonil)

1.6 pt

3.2 pt

7

0.5

Apply in a protective fungicide schedule.

 

11

Quadris

(azoxystrobin)

See label

92.3 fl oz

See label

4 hr

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group.

 

11

Cabrio EG

(pyraclostrobin)

12 oz

72 oz

7

0.5

Alternate applications with a different fungicide group. Make no more than 5 appl./crop.

 

11 & 3

Quilt Xcel

(azoxystrobin + propiconazole)

21 fl oz (dry)

26 fl oz (green)

56 fl oz

14 (dry bulb)

0 (green)

0.5

Make only 1 application before alternating to a non-group 11 fungicide.

 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

Seedling blight

M3

(mancozeb)

Many brands available:

Dithane DF, Dithane F45, Dithane M45, Koverall, Manzate, Manzate Pro-Stik, Penncozeb 4FL, Penncozeb 75DF, Penncozeb 80WP, Roper DF

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

Do not apply to exposed bulbs.

 

11

Dynasty

(azoxystrobin)

0.38 fl oz/100 lb seed

See label

See label

4 hr

 
 

12

Maxim 4FS

Spirato 480 FS

(fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb seed

-

-

0.5

 
 

14

Botran 5F

(DCNA dicloran)

3.5 lb

See label

14

See label

 

Stemphylium blight

(Stemphylium vesicarium)

2

(iprodione)

Many brands available:

Enclosure 4, Iprodione 4L AG, Meteor, Nevado 4F, Rovral 4 Flowable

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

1

 
 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

3

0.5

 
 

9 & 3

Inspire Super

(cyprodinil + difenoconazole)

20 fl oz

See label

14 (green)

7 (dry bulb)

0.5

Do not make more than 2 applications before alternating with a different fungicide group.

 

11 & 3

Quadris Top

(azoxystrobin + difenoconazole)

14 fl oz

42 fl oz

7

0.5

Make no more than 1 application before alternating to another fungicide with a non-QoI (Group 11) mode of action.

 

11 & 7

Pristine

(pyraclostrobin + boscalid)

18.5 oz

111 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. No more than 6 appl./crop.

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications.

Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last application.

 

29

Omega

(fluazinam)

1 pt

6 pt

7

1

Begin sprays at first development and continue

on 7–14 day schedule.

White rot

(Sclerotium cepivorum)

1

(thiophanate-methyl)

Many brands available:

Incognito 4.5 F, NuFarm T-Methyl 4.5 F, NuFarm T-Methyl 70 WSB, Thiophanate-methyl 85 WDG, Topsin 4.5 FL, Topsin M 70 WP, Topsin M 70 WDG, Topsin M WSB

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

 

3

 
 

3

(tebuconazole)

Many brands available:

Onset 3.6L, Orius 3.6 F, Tebu-Crop 3.6F, Tebustar 3.6 L, Tebuzol 3.6F, Toledo

SEE INDIVIDUAL LABEL

7

0.5

 
 

7

Fontelis

(penthiopyrad)

24 fl oz

72 fl oz

7

0.5

Spray into empty furrow at time of planting.

 

11 & M5

Quadris Opti

(azoxystrobin + chlorothalonil)

3.7 pt

See label

14

0.5

Alternate applications with different fungicide groups. Make no more than 3 appl./crop. Do not tank mix with COC, MSO, or silicon adjuvant.

 

9 & 12

Switch 62.5WG

(cyprodinil + fludioxonil)

14 oz

56 oz

7

0.5

Do not make more than 2 consecutive applications. Do not plant crops not on the label for 30 days after last application.

 

12

Cannonball WG

(fludioxonil)

7 oz

32 oz

7

0.5

 
 

12

Maxim 4FS

(fludioxonil)

0.16 fl oz/100 lb seed

-

-

0.5

 
 

14

Botran 5F

(DCNA dicloran)

3.5 lb

See label

14

0.5

 

1 FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (1 through 45) and letters (U and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with the same number or letter) indicate the same active ingredient or a similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. U = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet and is typically associated with another number; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2019; http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2 Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any chemical. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 7. 

Fumigant nematicides for onion and allies.

Nematicide

Broadcast Application 1

In-the-Row Applications

Gallons or lb per Acre

fl oz/1000 ft/chisel spaced 12" apart

Telone II

9 to 12 gal

26 to 35

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-17

10.8 to 17.1 gal

31.8 to 50.2

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Telone C-35

13 to 20.5 gal

38 to 60

For any row spacing, application rates given may be concentrated in the row but shall never exceed labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Pic-Clor 60

19 to 31.5 gal

57 to 90

For any row spacing, application rates should never exceed the labeled maximum for broadcast applications. Consult the product label for additional detail.

Vapam HL

75 gal

-

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions.

KPam HL

60 gal

-

For drip or in-row chisel fumigation, consult product label for proportionately reduced overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions.

Allyl Isothiocyanate

(AITC)

Dominus

40 gal

-

For drip or in-row fumigation and crop termination, consult product label for overall rates, drip concentration, and flow-modifying directions.

1Gallons/acre and fl oz/1000 feet provided only for mineral soils. Higher rates may be possible for heavier-textured (loam, silt, clay) or highly organic soils.

2 All of the fumigants mentioned are for retail sale and use only by state-certified applicators or persons under their direct supervision. New supplemental labeling for the Telone products must be in the hands of the user at the time of application. See new label details for additional use restrictions based on soil characteristics, buffer zones, requirements for Fumigant Management Plans (FMP) and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), mandatory good agricultural practices (GAPs), product and applicator training certification, and other use and rate-modifying recommendations and restrictions.

3 Higher application rates are possible in the presence of cyst-forming nematodes.

Rates are believed to be correct for products named, and similar products of other brand names, when applied to mineral soils. Higher rates are required for muck (organic) soils. However, the grower has the final responsibility to see that each product is used legally; read the label of the product to be sure that you are using it properly.

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS730, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2015. Revised June 2020. This is Chapter 12 of the Vegetable Production Handbook of Florida, 2020–2021 edition. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Peter J. Dittmar, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; Eugene McAvoy, Extension agent IV, UF/IFAS Extension Hendry County; Richard N. Raid, professor, UF/IFAS Everglades Research and Education Center; Pamela Roberts, professor, UF/IFAS Southwest Florida REC; Hugh A. Smith, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Xavier Martini, assistant professor, UF/IFAS North Florida REC; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Shouan Zhang, associate professor, UF/IFAS Tropical REC; and Lincoln Zotarelli, assistant professor, Horticultural Sciences Department; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.