SS723/SL510by Hui-Ling LiaoOctober 25th, 2023Each gram of rich soil can harbor 100 million to a billion microorganisms, meaning every inch of our soil is alive (Raynaud and Nunan 2014) (Fig. 1). These underground organisms keep soil healthy. Balancing the community of microbes can benefit plant yield, plant health, and soil sustainability. While it is recognized that many soil microbes perform key roles in crop productivity, the importance of these underground activities is easily overlooked because of their small size. By focusing on a specific group of microbes living on or near plant roots, this publication provides understanding for these questions: Who are these microbes and how do they improve plant and soil health?