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Publication #ENH1190

North Florida Gardening Calendar1

Sydney Park Brown2

January

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Cool-season annuals include pansy, viola, petunia, and snapdragon. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Crinum, agapanthus, and gloriosa lily can be planted now. Mulch to protect from cold temperatures. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Camellias: Select and plant camellia this month. Visit local nurseries now for the best selection of colors and forms. See Camellias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_camellia

Figure 1. 

Camellia


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Vegetables: Irish potatoes can be planted now. Start with healthy seed pieces purchased from a local nursery or online seed catalog. Continue planting cool-season crops, including broccoli, kale, carrots, and lettuce. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Deciduous fruit: Plant deciduous fruit trees now to give their roots time to develop before the warm, dry spring months. Prune and fertilize existing trees. See Temperate Fruit for the Home Landscape: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_temperate_fruit

Cold protection: Be ready to cover tender plants to minimize damage. Frost or freezes are likely this month and next. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

Irrigation: Water plants if temperatures remain higher than normal and rainfall is scarce. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Shrubs and trees: Prune non-spring flowering shrubs and trees this month to improve form. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Arbor Day: Celebrate Florida Arbor Day (the third Friday of January) by planting a tree in your yard or community. Consider a hurricane-resistant tree, such as live oak, bald cypress, cabbage palm, or crapemyrtle. See Arbor Day in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_arbor_day

Crapemyrtle: Remove seed pods, crossing branches and small twiggy growth to improve the appearance and form of the plant, if desired. Hard pruning is not required. See Crapemyrtle: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_crapemyrtle

Pests: Control persistent scale insects on citrus, shrubs, camellias, and deciduous fruit trees; apply horticultural oil while plants are dormant. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

February

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Plants that can take a chill include dianthus, pansy, viola, and dusty miller. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Try dahlia, crinum, and agapanthus. Provide adequate water for establishment and protect them from cold with mulch. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Flowering plants: Many trees and shrubs will be in bloom, including red maple (Acer rubrum) and star magnolia (Magnolia kobus var. stellata). See Southern Tree Fact Sheets: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/department_envhort-trees

Vegetables: Plant potatoes now. Start with healthy seed pieces purchased from a local nursery or online seed catalog. Continue to plant cool-season crops. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Palms: Give cold-damaged palms proper care to encourage their recovery. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

Citrus: Avoid pruning until spring. Cold temperatures may still injure citrus. See Home Citrus Culture: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_citrus_home_citrus_culture

Roses: Prune roses this month to remove damaged canes and improve the overall form. After pruning, fertilize and apply a fresh layer of mulch. Blooming will begin 8–9 weeks after pruning. See Roses: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_rose

Figure 2. 

Rose


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Eric Zamora


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Shrubs: Make certain that you know the height and spread of any shrub you plan to install. Not all shrubs are suitable for planting next to homes or under windows. See Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_shrubs and The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf

Lawn: Apply a preemergence weed killer (not a “weed and feed” fertilizer) when temperatures rise to 65°F for 4–5 days to prevent warm-season weeds. Timing is important for good control. See Lawn Weeds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_weeds

Citrus and other fruit trees: Fertilize now if not done in January. Frequency and amount of fertilization depend on the age of the tree. See Home Citrus Culture: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_citrus_home_citrus_culture and Temperate Fruit for the Home Landscape: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_temperate_fruit

March

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: Dianthus and other cool-season annuals continue to flourish. Consider planting warm-season annuals such as angelonia, wax begonia, and zinnia at the end of the month. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Plant dahlia, canna, and gloriosa bulbs for spring and summer flowering. Provide stakes as needed to support growth. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Consider growing edible ginger. Plant rhizomes in well-drained soil in full to part sun. See Ginger: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ginger and Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Begin planting warm-season crops, such as beans, tomatoes, squash, and corn, early in the month for late spring harvest. Protect from frost. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 3. 

Tomato


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Sally Lanigan


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Azaleas: Prune azaleas when they have finished blooming to reduce their size and improve their form. See Azalea: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_azalea

Shrubs and trees: Prune when the dormant season ends and new growth begins. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Palms and shrubs: Fertilize palms (http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep261), azaleas, camellias, and other ornamental shrubs if needed. Choose a fertilizer in which at least 30% of its nitrogen is slow release. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition and Landscape Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_fertilization

Irrigation: Check your sprinkler system for problems such as broken or misaligned spray heads. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

April

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: New varieties of coleus do well in sun or shade and provide vivid colors and patterns for months. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: This is an ideal time to plant many bulbs. Consider blood lily, caladium, or canna. Louisiana iris and others make beautiful cut flowers. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Figure 4. 

Yellow canna


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Herbs: Plant heat-loving herbs, including basil, oregano, sage, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Continue planting warm-season crops. Mulch well to prevent weeds and provide irrigation if rainfall is lacking. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Pests: Monitor landscape plants for aphids that feed on tender new growth. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Beneficials: Identify and conserve beneficial insects. These insects should be encouraged in your yard! See Beneficial Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_beneficial_insects

Perennials and bulbs: Divide clumps of bulbs, ornamental grasses, or herbaceous perennials to expand or rejuvenate garden beds or to pass along to friends. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers and Perennial Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_perennials

Lawn insects: Rule out cultural problems, such as lack of water, that resemble insect damage before applying a pesticide. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Lawns: Apply fertilizer after new growth has started—usually early April in north-central Florida and mid-April for north Florida and the panhandle. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Shrubs: Choose from a wide variety of shrubs to add to the landscape now. See Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_shrubs and The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf

Trees: Consider planting a spring-blooming tree, such as fringetree (Chionanthus virginicus), Carolina Silverbell (Halesia carolina), or redbud (Cercis canadensis). See Southern Tree Fact Sheets: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/department_envhort-trees

Mulch: Add mulch to minimize weeds and conserve moisture during dry weather. Organic mulches break down and add nutrients to the soil. See Landscape Mulches: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mulch

May

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: Plants that can take summer heat include salvia, angelonia, wax begonia, and ornamental pepper. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Planting early-, mid-, and late-blooming varieties of daylily ensures months of color from these low-maintenance plants. See Daylilies: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_daylilies and Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Continue to plant heat-loving herbs, including basil, oregano, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Swiss chard will take the heat as well as okra, southern pea, and sweet potato. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Pests: Insects become more active in warm weather. Watch for thrips, scales, and mites on ornamental plants. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Gardenias: Yellowing of older leaves is usually normal; yellowing of new growth usually indicates a micronutrient deficiency. See Gardenias at a Glance: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/ep338

Oleanders: Inspect chewed or ragged leaves for oleander caterpillars at work. See Oleander Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_oleander_ipm

Lawn insects: Watch for damage from chinch bugs in St. Augustinegrass and begin scouting for newly hatched mole crickets in bahiagrass lawns. See Turfgrass Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_pest_insects

Tomatoes: Watch for pests, disease, and nutritional disorders on tomato plants. See Home Tomato Gardening: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tomato_gardening

New plants: Produce more plants by air layering, grafting, division, or cuttings. See Seeds and Propagation (Lawn and Garden): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_propagation

Figure 5. 

Hibiscus


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Marisol Amador


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Trees: Prepare for hurricane season by checking trees for damaged or weak branches and pruning if needed. Hire an ISA-certified arborist. See International Society of Arboriculture: http://isa-arbor.com/ and Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Lawn Mowing: Encourage healthy growth and discourage insects, weeds, and diseases by mowing correctly. See Lawn Mowing: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_mowing

June

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding Plants: Annuals that can take full sun during hot summer months include celosia, portulaca, vinca, and some coleus. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Perennials: Add bright color to the landscape with perennials. See Perennial Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_perennials

Palms: Summer’s warm, rainy weather is the perfect time to plant palms. Make sure not to cover the trunk with soil. See Palms: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palms

Herbs: Plant heat-loving herbs, including basil, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. Pinch back regularly to prevent flowering and enhance branching. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Plant okra, southern pea, and sweet potato. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 6. 

Eggplant


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Pests: Monitor the landscape weekly for harmful insects. Knowing which insects commonly attack a plant can aid in identification and treatment. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Irrigation: If rainfall has been lacking, watch for drought stress and water as needed. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Palms and cycads: Watch for nutrient deficiencies or environmental problems with palms and correct using an appropriate treatment. See Palm Nutrition: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition

Summer-flowering shrubs: Prune lightly during the warmer months to encourage more branching and blooming. Azaleas can still be pruned in June without removing next spring’s flower buds. See Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

Fertilizer Bans: Certain municipalities in north Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Lawns: Yellow and brown patches in St. Augustinegrass can be caused by chinch bugs, disease, or lack of water. Take time to determine the cause so your remedy is effective. Rejuvenate areas where grass does not grow well by replacing it with a more adapted turf or groundcover. See Garden Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_pest_insects and The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf, and Ground Covers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ground_covers

July

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: As the heat continues, water annuals when needed to keep the soil evenly moist. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Figure 7. 

Mexican sage


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Bulbs: Butterfly lily, gladiolus, and society garlic can be planted during the middle of summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Palms: Continue planting palms while the rainy season is in full swing. Support large palms with braces for 6–8 months after planting. Nails should not be driven directly into a palm trunk. See Palms: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palms

Vegetables: Start your tomato and Halloween pumpkin seeds! Cucumbers, peppers, and southern peas, can also be planted now. Watch for insects and disease symptoms. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

  • Lawns: Determine the cause of any lawn problems before taking action. If an insect is the culprit, treat only the affected area. Rule out disease or sprinkler malfunction. See Your Florida Lawn: http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/yourfloridalawn/

  • Fertilizer Bans: Certain municipalities in north Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

  • Vegetable garden: Use summer heat to solarize garden soil for fall planting. It takes 4–6 weeks to kill weeds, disease, and nematodes, so start now. See Soil Solarization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_soil_solarization

  • Azaleas: Flower beds have formed. Prune no later than mid-July to protect next spring’s bloom. See Azalea: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_azalea

  • Irrigation: Install an inexpensive rain shutoff device to conserve water and save money. If one is already installed, check that it is operating properly. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

  • Trees: Prepare for hurricane season by checking trees for damaged or weak branches and pruning if needed. Hire an ISA-certified arborist. See International Society of Arboriculture: http://isa-arbor.com/ and Pruning Landscape Trees and Shrubs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_tree_pruning

  • Pests on ornamental plants: Inspect for caterpillars on trees and shrubs. Large trees can normally withstand caterpillar feeding, but specimen shrubs may need treatment if damage is extensive. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

  • Peach and nectarine trees: Consider planting one of the many new peach and nectarine cultivars that grow well in North Florida. Newly planted trees should be fertilized now. Apply 1/2 lb. per tree of 8-8-8 fertilizer. See Temperate Fruit for the Home Landscape: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_temperate_fruit

August

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: The hottest days of summer limit planting now to heat-tolerant vinca, gaillardia, bulbine, and coleus. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Figure 8. 

Vinca


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Bulbs: Aztec lily, butterfly lily, walking iris, and spider lily can be planted any time of the year, even late summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Herbs that can be planted from plants (not seeds) include bay laurel, ginger, Mexican tarragon, and rosemary. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Many cool-season crops can be started now as well as a final crop of warm-season vegetables such as lima beans, cucumbers, eggplant, and peppers. Tomatoes can also be planted for the fall garden. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Lawns: Determine the cause of any damage to the lawn so the proper remedy is used. Damage from insects, disease, or irrigation failure can produce similar symptoms. Use a sharp mower blade and only remove a third of the grass blade to reduce stress on the lawn. See Insect Management in Your Florida Lawn: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_insect_management, The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection & Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf, and Ground Covers: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_ground_covers

Fertilizer Bans: Certain municipalities in north Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Palms: Check older palm fronds for yellowing as it may indicate a magnesium or potassium deficiency. Apply an appropriate palm fertilizer. See Palm Nutrition and Fertilization: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_palm_nutrition

Poinsettias: Pinch back poinsettias and mums before the end of the month to allow time for buds to form for winter bloom. See Poinsettias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_poinsettia

Ornamental plants: Rapid growth and leaching rains may result in nutrient deficiencies in some plants. See Nutrient Deficiencies (Landscape Plants): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_nutrient_deficiencies_landscape_plants

Annuals and Perennials: Remove spent blooms, cut back, and fertilize flowering annuals and perennials to extend the season into the fall months. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants and Perennial Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_perennials

September

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Try ageratum, celosia, zinnia, and wax begonia for color into fall. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Add color, texture, and pattern to the garden with the many varieties of elephant’s ear (Alocasia spp.), calla, narcissus, and zephyr lily. See Elephant's Ear: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_elephants_ear and Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Plant Mexican tarragon, mint, rosemary, and basil. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: It is time to establish strawberry plants. Other veggies to plant now are broccoli, carrot, cabbage, collards, and many others. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Figure 9. 

Hydroponic lettuce and herbs


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

What to Do

Lawn insects: Continue to monitor the lawn for signs of insect damage. Fall armyworms, chinch bugs, mole crickets, and sod webworms are still active this month. See Insect Management in Your Florida Lawn: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/IR00002848/00001

Perennials and bulbs: Divide and replant those that have grown too large or need rejuvenation. Add organic matter to new planting areas and monitor water needs during establishment. See Seeds and Propagation (Lawn and Garden): http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_propagation

Lawns: The last fertilizer application should be around the middle or end of September in north Florida. Choose a fertilizer with no or very little phosphorus unless a soil test indicates a need for it. A fertilizer containing controlled-release nitrogen yields longer-lasting results. See Lawn Fertilizer: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_fertilization

Fertilizer Bans: Certain municipalities in north Florida prohibit the application of fertilizer to lawns and/or landscape plants during the summer rainy season (June–September). See if such an ordinance exists in your area.

Lawn weeds: Maintain healthy grass because it is the best defense against weeds. Avoid "weed and feed" products; only apply herbicides to areas with weed infestations. See Lawn Weeds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_weeds

Garden for hummingbirds: Plant firebush, firespike, russelia, and other plants to supply nectar for visiting hummingbirds. See Hummingbird Gardening: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_hummingbird_gardening

Vegetable garden: Prepare the fall vegetable garden if not done in August. Using transplants from your local garden center will get the garden off to a fast start, but seeds offer more varieties to choose from. For a list of Florida-proven performers, See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

October

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Plant digitalis (foxglove), petunia, and shasta daisy in the fall garden. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Fragrant daffodil varieties for North Florida include 'Carlton', 'Fortune', 'Silver Chimes', 'Thalia', and 'Sweetness'. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Some to try from plants or seed include dill, fennel, oregano, and sage. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Plant bulbing onions, salad crops such as arugula, lettuce, and spinach, as well as numerous other cool-season crops. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Lawns: Control winter weeds in lawns before they appear. Preemergent herbicides must be applied at the right time to be effective. Apply when nighttime temps are 55°F–60°F for 4–5 days. Avoid "weed and feed" products. See Lawn Weeds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_lawn_weeds

Winter landscapes: Plant evergreen hollies; their bright berries add color to the landscape when other plants have died back for the winter. Water well when planting and mulch to minimize weeds. See Holly: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_holly

Pine needles: Gather pine needles that are dropping and use them as natural mulch. See Landscape Mulches: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mulch

Strawberries: This is the last month to set strawberry plants in the garden or in large containers. Either way, water daily until plants are established. See Strawberries: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_strawberries

Figure 10. 

Strawberry


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Thomas Wright


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Lawns: Lawns start to lose color as the weather cools. If a green winter lawn is desired, overseed with annual ryegrass when daytime temps are in the low 70s, but keep in mind that watering and mowing will be required.

Lawn disease: Watch for brown patch and large patch, fungal diseases that cause areas of grass to turn brown. Since treatment is difficult, prevention with proper cultural practices is key. The disease becomes active when the soil temperature, measured 2–4 in. deep, is between 65°F and 75°F and goes dormant when the weather warms in May. See Turf Diseases: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_turf_diseases

November

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Pansy, viola, and chrysanthemum create great fall color. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Bulbs to plant include amaryllis, crinum, and daylily. Plant spider lily in partial shade. Plants produce foliage in winter, and beautiful red flowers emerge in late summer. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Figure 11. 

Crinum lily


Credit:

UF/IFAS


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Herbs: A wide variety of herbs like cooler, dryer weather, including cilantro, dill, fennel, parsley, sage, and thyme. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: A long list of cool-season crops can be planted now including broccoli, cabbage, kale, and lettuce. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Citrus: Protect small citrus trees if freezing temperatures are predicted by watering well at least a day before the freeze. You may also use covers that extend to the ground for protection. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

Scale insects: Apply dormant oil sprays to control scale insects on trees and shrubs. See Landscape Pest Management: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_pests

Irrigation: Turn off systems and water only if needed. Plants need less supplemental watering in cooler weather. See Landscape Irrigation: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscape_irrigation

Flowering trees: Consider planting an ornamental Taiwan cherry (Prunus campanulata). Late winter brings pink blooms. See The Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Guide to Plant Selection and Landscape Design: http://fyn.ifas.ufl.edu/pdf/FYN_Plant_Selection_Guide_v090110.pdf

Birds: Make a small brush pile from plant debris in the back of the yard for birds. See Wild Birds: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_wild_birds

Camellias: Add some of the new cultivars for bright spots of color in winter. Disbudding, or removing some buds now, ensures larger blooms later. See Camellias: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_camellia

December

What to Plant

Annuals/Bedding plants: Masses of petunia, pansy, snapdragon, lobelia, alyssum, and viola add color in winter. See Annuals: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_annual_landscape_plants

Bulbs: Amaryllis can be forced to bloom now or planted outdoors for spring blooms. See Bulbs for Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_bulbous_flowers

Herbs: Some examples of cool-weather herbs include parsley, thyme, sage, dill, fennel, garlic, comfrey, and cilantro. See Herbs: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_herbs

Vegetables: Reliable cool-season vegetables include cabbages, collards, beets, and broccoli. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

What to Do

Poinsettias: Enjoy one of the most popular indoor holiday plants. With proper care, this colorful plant gives weeks of color. See Poinsettia: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_poinsettia

Figure 12. 

Poinsettia


Credit:

UF/IFAS Photo by Tyler Jones


[Click thumbnail to enlarge.]

Cold damage: Wait until warm weather returns to cut back cold-damaged plants. See Cold Protection and Chilling Damage of Landscape Plants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_landscapes_and_cold

Vegetable garden: Make sure that seeds and transplants are properly spaced for good development of tubers and vegetables. See Vegetable Gardening in Florida: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_vegetable_gardening

Houseplants: Inspect regularly for pests on indoor plants. Keep in mind that adequate light is a key factor to ensuring that indoor plants thrive. See Houseplants: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_house_plants

Soil test: Consider performing a soil test if plants do not perform as desired or if new plantings are planned. See Soil Testing: http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/agriculture/soil_testing.html and Soil Testing (Home Lawn and Garden):http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_soil_testing

Compost/mulch: Use fallen leaves to provide the carbon ingredient needed for successful composting and also to make a good mulch. See Backyard Composting: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_home_composting and Landscape Mulches: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_mulch

Garden pests: Continue monitoring and treat as needed. While cooler weather generally means fewer pests, some populations actually increase at this time of year. See Garden Pest Insects: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/topic_garden_pest_insects

What to Do Every Month

UF Resources for Gardeners

Acknowledgements

The author wishes to thank Carolyn Wildes and Mary Derrick for their time and dedication to the Florida Gardening Calendar project.

Footnotes

1.

This document is ENH1190, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date April 2012. Revised January 2016 and September 2016. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.

2.

Sydney Park Brown, associate professor and Extension specialist—consumer horticulture, Environmental Horticulture Department, Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; UF/IFAS Extension, Plant City, FL 33563.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.