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Publication #HS1301

2019–2020 Florida Citrus Production Guide: Fresh Fruit Pesticide Residue Limits1

Mark A. Ritenour2

Current production practices often include the use of various pre- and postharvest chemicals, many of which are pesticides. To be used, these materials must be labeled for use on citrus and used only according to label instructions. Chemical residues on the fruit after harvest are a concern to regulators and the public alike because of their potential negative health effects. Therefore, the United States and other countries set maximum residue limits (MRLs) on fresh produce for various chemicals. It is unlikely for US MRLs to be exceeded when label instructions are followed. However, when importing countries’ MRLs are lower than US MRLs, use of these pesticides usually must be modified or discontinued to keep from exceeding the country’s tolerances. In addition, individual buyers may set their own, more restrictive standards. Similar to buyer-imposed food safety standards, buyer-imposed MRL standards, especially from large buyers, can significantly impact how pesticides are used in the field and packing facility.

Table 1 lists the MRLs (in parts per million) for various chemicals used on fresh Florida citrus for the United States, CODEX, and important export countries. The limit of detection for chemical residues on citrus fruit is often around 0.01 ppm, depending on the testing laboratory and chemical of interest. When no tolerance is stated, any detectable residue will violate tolerances. Violations may lead to rejected loads of product, restrictions on future shipments, and even increased requirements for the entire industry to a given market. Because MRLs change frequently, see the Global MRL Database (https://www.globalmrl.com) or the University of Florida’s Postharvest Resources Website (http://irrec.ifas.ufl.edu/postharvest) for the most current information and links to MRL databases for select countries. Table 1 and the websites are intended as an initial reference source and no guarantee is made to their accuracy. Always verify these values with other knowledgeable sources within specific markets of interest.

Tables

Table 1. 

Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) in parts per million (ppm), by country. Abbreviations: grapefruit (G), orange (O), tangerine (T), lemon (L). Materials EXEMPT from US tolerances or only labeled for application to NONBEARING trees are NOT included.

Chemical Name

Trade Names (examples, not inclusive)

US Citrus

Canada Citrus

CODEX Citrus

EU (G & O only)

Japan (G & O only)

Taiwan (G & O only)

Korea (G & O only)

2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)

Citrus Fix, Hivol

3

2

1

1

2 (1 proposed)

2

0.15

Abamectin

Agri-Mek, Clinch, Zephyr, ABBA, Epi-mek, Reaper

0.02

0.02

0.02

0.04

0.01 (0.1 proposed)

0.01

0.02

Acequinocyl

Kanemite

0.35

0.35

 

0.2 (G); 0.4 (O)

2

0.2

1

Acetamiprid

Assail

1

0.5

1

0.9

2

0.5

0.5

Acibenzolar-S-methyl

Actigard

0.02

0.1

0.015

0.01

0.01

0.01

0.2

Aldicarb

TEMIK

0.3

0.1

0.2

0.02

0.2 (G) 0.01 (O)

0.01

0.02

Alpha-cypermethrin

 

0.35

0.1

0.5 (G), 0.3 (O, T, L)

2

2

2

2

Azoxystrobin

Abound, Graduate A+

15

15

15

15

10

10

10

Beta-cyfluthrin

Baythroid XL

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.02

2

0.3

2

Bifenthrin

Brigade, Capture, Telstar, Fanfare

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.05

2

0.5

0.5

Boscalid

A component of Pristine

2

3

2

2

10

5

2

Bromacil

Bromo, Hyvar

0.1

0.1

 

0.01

0.1

0.5

0.1

Buprofezin

Applaud, Centaur

2.5

0.1 (G, L), 4 (O, T)

1

1

3 (G), 2 (O)

0.5

0.5 (G), 2.5 (O)

Carbaryl

Sevin

10

10

15

0.01

7

1

0.5 (G), 7 (O)

Carbon disulfide

 

0.1 (G, O, L)

0.1

2 (O)

5

0.01

2

5 (G), 2 (O)

Carfentrazone-ethyl

Aim

0.1

0.1

 

0.01

0.1

0.1

0.1

Chlorantraniliprole

Altacor, part of VoliamFlexi

1.4

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.5

0.6

Chlorpyrifos

Lorsban, Nufos

1

1

1

1.5

1

1

1

Clothianidin

Belay

0.07

0.1

0.07

0.06

2

1

1

Cryolite

Kryocide

7

0.1

 

0.01

0.01

7

0.01

Cyantraniliprole

Minecto Pro

0.7

0.7

0.7

0.9

0.7

 

0.7

Cyflumetofen

 

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

10

1

0.3

Cyfluthrin

Baythroid

0.2

0.1

0.3

0.02

2

0.3

2

Deltamethrin

 

0.3 (O)

0.1

0.02

0.04

0.5

0.05

0.01

Difenoconazole

A component of Quadris Top

0.6

0.8

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

Diflubenzuron

Micromite

3

0.1

0.5

1 (proposed limit to non-edible crops)

3

1

3

Dimethoate

Dimethoate, Cygon

2

1.5

5

0.01

2

2

2

Diquat dibromide

 

0.05

0.1

0.02

0.02

0.04 (G), 0.03 (O)

 

0.02

Diuron

Diuron, Direx, Karmex

0.05, 0.5 (L)

1

 

0.01

0.8 (G), 0.05 (O)

0.05 (G), 0.2 (O)

1

EPTC (S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate)

Eptam

0.1

0.1

 

0.01

0.1

 

0.01

Etofenprox

 

5

0.1

 

1

5

0.01

5

Etoxazole

 

0.1 (O, T)

0.1

0.1 (O, T)

0.1 (O)

0.7 (O)

0.7 (O)

0.01 (O)

Fenazaquin

 

0.5 (O, T, L)

0.1

 

0.5

0.01

0.5

2

Fenbuconazole

Enable

1

1

0.5 (G, O, T), 1 (L)

1

1

0.01

0.5

Fenbutatin Oxide

Vendex

20

2

5

5

5

2

5

Fenpropathrin

Danitol

2

2

2

2

5

0.5

2

Fenpyroximate

Portal

1

0.5

0.6

0.5

1

0.5

0.5

Ferbam

Ferbam

4

0.1

10 (T), 2 (O)

0.01

2

2

5 (G), 2 (O)

Flazasulfuron

 

0.01

0.1

 

0.01

0.1

0.2

0.01

Fluazifop-P-butyl

Fusilade

0.03

0.03

0.01

0.01

0.05

0.01

0.01

Fludioxonil

Graduate, Graduate A+

10

10

10

10

10

5 (7 proposed)

10

Flufenoxuron

 

0.3 (O)

1 (O)

0.4 (O)

0.3 (O)

2 (O)

0.01 (O)

1 (O)

Flumioxazin

Chateau

0.02

0.01

 

0.02

0.1

 

0.01

Fluopyram

 

1

1

0.4 (G), 0.6 (O, T), 1 (L)

0.01

1

0.01

1

Flupyradifurone

Sivanto

3

3

0.7 (G), 4 (O), 1.5 (T, L)

0.01

3

1

3

Fluxapyroxad

 

1

1

0.3 (O)

0.3

0.01

0.01

1

Formetanate Hydrochloride

 

1.5 (G, O), 0.03 (T), 0.6 (L)

0.4 (G), 0.9 (O), 0.03 (T), 0.09 (L)

 

0.01

2

1.5

0.01

Fosetyl-aluminum

Aliette

9

9

50 (O)

75

150

10

0.05

Glufonsinate-ammonium

 

0.15

0.1

0.05

0.05

0.2

0.1

0.05

Glyphosate

Roundup, Durango, Touchdown, & others

0.5

0.1

 

0.1 (G) 0.5 (O)

0.5

0.1

0.5

Hexythiazox

Savey

0.6

0.5

0.5

1

1

1

0.5

Hydrogen cyanide

 

50

0.1

 

0.01

50

 

5

Imazalil

DECCOZIL EC-289, Freshgard 700, Fungaflor 500EC

10

5

5

5

5

5

5

Imidacloprid

Admire, Alias, Provado, Couraze, Nuprid, Pasada, Widow

0.7

1 (proposed phase out)

1

1

0.7

1

0.7

Indaziflam

Alion

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

Malathion

Malathion, Atrapa, Fyfanon

8

0.1

7

2

7

2

0.5

Mesotrione

 

0.01

0.1

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

Metaflumizone

 

0.04

0.1

 

0.05

0.01

0.01

1

Metalaxyl-M, Mefenoxam

Ridomil Gold, Subdue, UltraFlourish

1

5

5

0.7

0.7

0.5

0.01

Metaldehyde

OR-Cal Slug & Snail Bait

0.26

0.1

 

0.05

0.7

 

0.05

Methomyl

 

2

1

1

0.01

10

1

1

Methoxyfenozide

Intrepid 2F

3

10

2

2

3

2

3

Methyl bromide

 

30

0.1

30

30

30

 

30

NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid)

Fruit Fix

0.1 (O & T)

(0.1 default)

 

0.06

5 (O)

exempt

 

Naled

Dibrom

3

3

 

0.01

0.2

 

0.01

Norflurazon

Solicam

0.2

0.1

 

0.01

0.2

0.2

0.1

Oryzalin

Oryzalin, Surflan

0.05

0.1

 

0.01

0.08

 

0.05

Oxamyl

Vydate

3

0.1

5

0.01

5

0.5 (G), 1 (O)

5

Oxathiapiprolin

 

0.06

0.1

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.05

Oxydemeton-methyl

 

1 (G, O, L)

0.1

0.2 (L)

0.01

0.5

0.01

0.01

Oxytetracycline (sect. 18)

 

0.4

0.1

 

0.01

0.2

 

0.01

Paraquat Dichloride

Paraquat, Gramoxone, Boa

0.05

0.1

0.02

0.02

0.05

0.2

0.05

Pendimethalin

Prowl, Pendimax

0.1

0.1

0.03

0.05

0.05

0.01

0.05

Phosmet

Imidan

5

0.1

3

0.5

5

1

3

Phosphine

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

Piperonyl Butoxide

Evergreen EC

8 (O)

8 (O)

5

       

Propargite

Comite, Omite

5 (G, L), 10 (O)

5

3

0.01 (G), 4 (O)

3

5

5

Propiconazole

Banner, Bumper, Tilt, Orbit, PropiMax

8

8

9 (O)

5 (G) 9 (O)

8

4

8

Pyraclostrobin

Headline

2

2

2

1 (G) 2 (O)

2

1

2

Pyrethrins

Pyrellin (+ Rotenone), Evergreen (+ Piperonyl Butoxide)

1 (O)

1 (O)

0.05 (O)

1 (O)

1 (O)

0.05 (O)

1 (O)

Pyridaben

Nexter

0.9

0.9

 

0.5

1

2

0.01

Pyrimethanil

Penbotec

10

10

7

8

10

7

7

Pyriproxyfen

Distance, Esteem, Knack

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.6

0.5

0.3 (G), 0.5 (O)

0.7

Rimsulfuron

Matrix

0.01

0.1

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

Saflufenacil

Treevix, Kixor

0.03

0.03

0.01

0.03

0.03

0.03

0.03

Sethoxydim

Poast Plus

0.5

0.1

 

0.1

1

0.01

1

Simazine

Simazine, Princep, Sim-Trol

0.25 (G, O, L)

0.1

 

0.01

0.2

0.01

0.25

SOPP (2 Phenylphenol, O-phenylphenol, OPP)

DECCOSOL 125, FreshGard 5

10

10

10

10

10

10

10

Spinetoram

Delegate

0.3

0.3

0.07 (O)

0.2

0.7

0.2

0.05

Spinosad

Entrust, Naturalyte, Justice, Spintor

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Spirodiclofen

Envidor

0.5

0.5

0.4

0.5

2

0.5

0.4

Spirotetramat

Movento

0.6

0.6

0.5

1

1

0.5

0.5

Streptomycin

FireWall

2

0.1

 

0.01

0.02

 

0.01

Sulfentrazone

 

0.15

0.1

 

0.01

0.05

   

Sulfoxaflor

Closer

0.7

0.7

0.15 (G) 0.8 (O, T) 0.4 (L)

0.15 (G) 0.8 (O)

2

0.7

0.3 (G), 0.7 (O)

Tebuconazole

 

1 (O)

1 (O)

 

0.9 (O)

5 (O)

0.01 (O)

0.01 (O)

Tebufenozide

 

2

0.1

2

2

2

1.5

1

Teflubenzuron

 

0.6 (O) 0.8 (L)

0.6 (O), 0.1 (G, L, T)

0.5 (O)

0.01 (G), 0.5 (O)

1

0.01

0.01

Thiabendazole (TBZ)

Freshgard 598, Alumni, DECCO Salt No. 19

10

10

7

7

10

10

10

Thiamethoxam

Actara, Platinum, part of VoliamFlexi

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.15

1

0.4 (G) 1 (O)

1

Tolfenpyrad

APTA

0.8

1.5

 

0.01

3

0.5

2

Trifloxystrobin

Gem

0.6

0.6

0.5

0.5

3

0.5

0.5

Trifloxysulfuron

 

0.03

0.1

 

0.01

0.01

 

0.01

Trifluralin

Trifluralin, Treflan, Trilin

0.05

0.1

 

0.01

0.05

0.05

0.05

zeta-cypermethrin

Mustang

0.35

1

0.3 (O, T, L), 0.5 (G)

2

2

2

2

Footnotes

1.

This document is HS1301, one of a series of the Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date July 2017. Revised May 2018 and March 2019. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

2.

Mark A. Ritenour, professor, Horticultural Sciences Department, UF/IFAS Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945.

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty of the products named, and does not signify that they are approved to the exclusion of others of suitable composition.

Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.


The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. For more information on obtaining other UF/IFAS Extension publications, contact your county's UF/IFAS Extension office.

U.S. Department of Agriculture, UF/IFAS Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A & M University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Nick T. Place, dean for UF/IFAS Extension.