Chapter 19. Biopesticides and Alternative Disease and Pest Management Products

Natalia Peres, Gary Vallad, Johan Desaeger, and Hugh Smith

Table 1. Biopesticides labeled for management of arthropod pests of many crops.

Trade Name

(Active Ingredient)

MOA Code1

Insect or Mite Pest

Days to Harvest

REI (Hours)

OMRI-Listed

Remarks

Agree WG, Xentari

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai)

Biobit HP, Deliver, DiPel DF, Javelin WG

(Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies kurstaki)

11A

Caterpillars

0

4

Yes

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse.

Aza-Direct

(azadirachtin)

-

Aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafhoppers, leafminers, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Antifeedant, repellant, insect growth regulator.

Azera

(pyrethrins + azadirachtin)

3A + -

Aphids, beetles, caterpillars, leafminers, whiteflies

0

12

Yes

Apply when larvae are small for best control. Can be used in greenhouse.

BotaniGard ES

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, mealybugs, mites, plant bugs, planthoppers, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

No

Works by contact. Spores attach to insects, germinate, and penetrate insect cuticle. May be used in greenhouses.

BotaniGard Maxx

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA + pyrethrins)

3A + -

Aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, plant bugs, thrips, whiteflies

0

12

No

Captiva

(Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, soybean oil)

-

Leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

No

Captiva Prime

(Capsicum oleoresin extract, garlic oil, canola oil)

-

Leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Des-X

(soap, insecticidal)

-

Aphids, mites, plant bugs, whiteflies

0

12

Yes

Entrust SC

(spinosad)

5

Beetles, caterpillars, thrips

See label

4

Yes

See label for resistance management and for maximum allowed amount per season.

Grandevo WDG

(Chromobacterium subtsugae strain PRAA4-1)

-

Aphids, mites, plant bugs, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

JMS Stylet oil

(paraffinic oil)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, whiteflies

0

4

No

Met52 EC

(Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52)

Mites, thrips

0

12

Yes

Composed of spores of insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae strain F52.

M-Pede 49% EC

(soap, insecticidal)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, mites, thrips, whiteflies

0

12

Yes

Mycotrol ESO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Mycotrol WPO

(Beauveria bassiana strain GHA)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Neemix 4.5

(azadirachtin)

-

Aphids, leafminers, whiteflies

0

12

Yes

IGR and feeding repellant. Greenhouse and field.

Organic JMS Stylet Oil

(paraffinic oil)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, leafminers, mites, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

PFR-97 20% WDG

(Isaria fumosoroseus Apopka Strain 97)

-

Aphids, leafminers, mites, plant bugs, psyllids, weevils, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Can be used on vegetables grown for transplant. Do not mix with fungicides or apply within 5 days of fungicide applications other than copper. Dust/mist respirator must be used for mixing and applying.

Pyganic 5.0

(pyrethrins)

3A

Aphids, beetles, leafhoppers, leafminers, mealybugs, mites, plant bugs, planthoppers, psyllids, stink bugs, thrips, weevils, whiteflies

0

12

Yes

Harmful to bees. Can be used in greenhouses.

Seduce Insect Bait

(spinosad)

5

Caterpillars

See specific crops on label

4

Yes

Suffoil-X

(mineral oil)

-

Aphids, leafhoppers, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Thorough coverage is essential.

Trilogy

(extract of neem oil)

-

Aphids, mites, thrips, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

Apply morning or evening to reduce potential for leaf burn. Toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment.

Venerate XC

(heat-killed Burkholderia spp. strain A396 cells and spent fermentation media)

-

Corn earworm, mealybugs, mites, stink bugs, weevils, whiteflies

0

4

Yes

1 Mode of Action (MOA) codes for plant pest insecticides from the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) Mode of Action Classification v. 8.2 March 2020 Number codes (1 through 29) are used to distinguish the main insecticide mode of action groups, with additional letters for certain subgroups within each main group. All insecticides within the same group (with same number) indicate the same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the insecticide resistance management decisions. - = unknown, or a mode of action that has not been classified yet.

Table 2. Biopesticides and other alternative products labeled for plant disease management.

Product

(Active Ingredient), Fungicide Group1

Crops

Pertinent Diseases or Pathogens

Minimum Days to:

OMRI-Listed

Remarks2

Harvest

Reentry

Labels change frequently. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any pesticide. Refer to crop-specific tables for conventional pesticides labeled for disease and pest management.

ActinoGrow

Actinovate

(Streptomyces lydicus WYEC 108), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide and bactericide

0

1 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Afla-guard GR

(Aspergillus flavus NRRL 21882), NC

Sweet Corn

Aspergillus

-

4 hr

No

Do not exceed 20 lb/acre per growing season. See label for specific application instructions.

AgriPhage

(bacteriophage), NC

Tomato, Pepper

Bacterial spot, Bacterial speck

0

0

No

Bacterial strains must be characterized periodically by manufacturer to correctly formulate the bacteriophage mixture.

Aviv

(Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/BS03)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

(Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713), 44

Many brands available: Minuet, Rhapsody, Serenade ASO, Serenade Opti,

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide and bactericide

0

4 hr

Yes

For foliar applications, mix with copper compounds or other effective fungicides for improved disease control. See label for details regarding specific foliar and soil applications and target diseases.

BioCover

(Oil, petroleum), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew, Rust

0

4 hr

No

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

BIO-TAM

(Trichoderma asperellum strain ICC 012 + Trichoderma gamsii strain ICC 080), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotinia spp., Sclerotiumrolfsii, Thielaviopsisbasicola, and Verticillium spp.

-

1 hr

Yes

See label for additional rates and recommendations for transplant production and details for specific diseases. Check label for product incompatibility with certain chemical fungicides.

Botector

(Aureobasidium pullulans strain DSM 14940, 14941)

Tomatoes & Strawberries

Anthracnose, Botrytis, Phomopsis, Rhizopus

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations. Check label for precautions regarding incompatibility with fungicides.

BotryStop

(Ulocladium oudemansii U3 strain), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Botrytis, Sclerotinia

0

4 hr

No

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding fungicide compatibility.

Cinnerate

(cinnamon oil), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew, Botrytis, Rusts

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Contans WG

(Coniothyrium minitans strain CON/M/91-08)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Sclerotinia minor

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Cyclops

(olive and cinnamon oils), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

Debug ON

Debug Optimo

Debug Tres

Debug Turbo

(fats and glyceridic oils Mongosa, Azadirachtin), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew, Rust, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, Sclerotium rolfsii

0

4 hr

Yes

See labels for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

Double Nickel 55

Double Nickel LC

Triathlon BA

(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747), 44

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria spp., Anthracnose, Bacterial diseases, Botrytis, Early blight, Fusarium spp., Late blight, Phytophthora spp., Powdery mildew, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for additional rates and recommendations for foliar and soil application rates and details for specific diseases. Use as a soil drench at transplant and periodically throughout the season. Can also be used as a seed treatment. See label for details.

EcoSwing

(extract of Swinglea glutinosa), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria alternata, Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa, Botrytis cinerea, Erysiphaceae spp., Erwinia carotovora subspp., Aspergillus niger, Alternaria tenuis, Cladosporium herbarum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium spp.

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and greenhouse use.

Glacial Spray Fluid

(Oil, petroleum), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew, Rust

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

GreenClean PRO

PerCarb

(sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide/bactericide

0

No

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Howler

(Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain AFS009), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Rhizoctonia, Pythium, Fusarium, Phytophthora, Sclerotinia, Colletotrichum, and Botrytis.

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

(Hydrogen peroxide + peroxyacetic acid), NC

Many brands available: GreenClean Liquid, Jet-Ag, OxiDate, Purpose Plus, Rendition, SaniDate, SporeQuell, StorOx, TerraClean, TerraStart, ZeroTol

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

1 hr for enclosed areas; until spray dries in open-field areas.

No

See labels for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides. Some formulations can be used as a soil drench at transplant and periodically throughout the season. Can also be used as a seed treatment or for postharvest treatments.

JMS Stylet-Oil

Organic JMS Stylet-Oil

(paraffinic oil), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Potato Virus Y, Tobacco Etch Virus, Cucumber Mosaic Virus

0

4 hr

Yes, but only for one label

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

LEAPES

(Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, strain ABTS-351 and methyl salicylate)

Tomato & Pepper

Xanthomonas spp.

0

0.5

No

Apply before disease is observed in the field; should be used as part of a plant pathogen control program. See label for details regarding insecticidal activity.

LifeGard

(Bacillus mycoides isolate J)

Vegetables

Broad-spectrum fungicide

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Mildew Cure

(cotton, corn, and garlic oils), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

(mineral oil), NC

Many brands: 440 Superior Spray Oil, BioCover, Glacial Spray Oil, Omni Supreme Oil, PureSpray Green, SuffOil-X, TriTek, Ultra-Pure Oil

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, precautions, and fungicide compatibility.

Mycostop

(Streptomyces sp. strain K61)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

No

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Nutrol

(potassium phosphate), NC

Cucurbits, Peppers & Tomatoes

Powdery mildew

0

0

No

Do not mix with copper fungicides or other products affected by low pH (<5.5). See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

OxiPhos

(mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorus acid + hydrogen peroxide), 33 & NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria spp., Anthracnose, Bacterial diseases, Botrytis, Early blight, Fusarium spp., Late blight, Phytophthora spp., Powdery mildew, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia

0

1 hr for enclosed areas; until spray dries in open-field areas.

No

See label for additional rates and recommendations for transplant production and details for specific diseases. Use as a soil drench at transplant and periodically throughout the season. Can also be used as a seed treatment.

PlantShield HC

(Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia

0

4 hr

Yes

Can be applied to plant as a direct drench, furrow spray, chemigation, or in transplant starter solution. See label for details.

(potassium bicarbonate), NC

Many brands available: Armicarb 100, Armicarb “O”, Carb-O-Nator, Eco-mate, Kaligreen, Milstop

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

(potassium phosphite; mono- and dipotassium salts of phosphorous acid), 33

Many brands available: Alude, Appear, Confine Extra T&O, Fosphite, Fungi-Phite, Helena Prophyt, K-Phite 7LP AG, Phiticide, Phorcephite, Phostrol, Rampart, Reveille

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria spp., Anthracnose, Bacterial diseases, Downy mildew, Fusarium spp., Late blight, Leaf blights caused by Cercospora and Septoria spp., Phytophthora spp., Powdery mildew, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Root rots

0

4 hr

No

See label for details, specific recommendations, and precautions for tank mixing with copper-based fungicides.

Prev-Am

(sodium tetraborohydrate decahydrate), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Downy mildew, Botrytis, Powdery mildew, Late blight, White rust, White mold

0

0.5

No

See label for details, crop-specific recommendations, and precautions.

ProBlad Verde

(Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD))

Vegetables & Strawberries

Anthracnose, Botrytis, Powdery mildew, Southern blight, White mold

1

4 hr

Yes

See label for details, crop specific recommendations, and precautions.

Procidic, BerryCare

(citric acid), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

0

No

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

Purespray Green

(oil, petroleum), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew, Rust

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use.

Pvent

LALSTOP G46 WG

(Gliocladium catenulatum strain J1446), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for details, crop specific recommendations, and precautions.

Regalia

Regalia Rx

Pacesetter

(extract of Reynoutria sachalinensis), P

Vegetables & Strawberries

Bacterial canker, Bacterial speck, Bacterial spot, Botrytis, Early blight, Late blight, Phytophthora spp., Powdery mildew, Target spot

0

4 hr

Yes

Tank-mix with other effective fungicides for improved disease control under heavy pressure. See label for details.

Romeo

(Cerevisane; cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain LAS117)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria leaf spot, Anthracnose, Botrytis, Downy mildew, Fusarium, Late blight, Phytophthora, Powdery mildew, Rhizoctonia, Scab, Sour rot

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for details, crop specific recommendations, and precautions.

RootShield Granular

RootShield Home & Garden

(Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Cylindrocladium spp., Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Thielaviopsis spp.

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use and fungicide compatibility.

RootShield Plus Granular

RootShield Plus WP

(Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 and Trichoderma virens strain G-41), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Cylindrocladium spp., Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Thielaviopsis spp.

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions.

RootShield WP

(Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Cylindrocladium spp., Fusarium spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Thielaviopsis spp.

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use and fungicide compatibility.

Seican

(cinnamaldehyde)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Botrytis, Powdery mildew, Rusts

0

4 hr

No

See label for details, crop specific recommendations, and precautions.

Serifel Biofungicide

Serifel NG Biological Fungicide

Subtilex NG

(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain MBI 600), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for details, crop specific recommendations, and precautions.

Sil-Matrix

(potassium silicate), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

0

4 hr

No

Must be used in a rotational program with other fungicides when conditions are conducive for disease development. See label for details.

Soilgard

(Gliocladium virens GI-21), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Fusarium root and crown rot, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia spp., Sclerotium spp.

0

0

Yes

For best results, apply to transplants or as a drench during transplanting. Subsequent applications can be made as drench, directed spray, or by chemigation. See label for precautions regarding use and fungicide compatibility.

Sonata

(Bacillus pumilus QST 2808), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Early blight, Downy mildew, Late blight, Powdery mildew, Rust

0

4 hr

Yes

Mix or alternate with other effective fungicides for improved disease control. See label for details.

Sporatec

(oils of clove, rosemary and thyme), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Bacterial spot, Botrytis, Early blight, Gray mold, Late blight, Powdery mildew

0

0

Yes

Exercise care when applying. Begin applications once disease is observed. Use of a spreader and/or penetrant adjuvant recommended for improved performance. Do not apply when temps are above 90ºF. See label for details. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

Stargus

(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain F727 cells and spent fermentation media)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide and bactericide

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Taegro ECO

(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24), NC

Vegetables

Foliar diseases: Downy mildew, Powdery mildew, Pseudomonas spp., Xanthomonas spp.

Soilborne diseases: Fusarium spp., Phytophthora spp., Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia spp., Sclerotinia spp.

-

1

No

See label for specific instructions regarding soil injected, spray, or incorporated applications. Maximum of 12 applications per season. For best efficacy, product should be applied prior to disease or disease establishment. May be applied to greenhouse produced crops.

Thymox

(thyme oil)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Botrytis and Powdery mildew

0

0

-

See label for specific rates and application recommendations. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

Timorex ACT

Timorex Gold

(tea tree oil), 46

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum fungicide

2

1

No

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

Thyme Guard

(thyme oil extract), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum bactericide and fungicide

0

0

-

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

Trilogy

(clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Alternaria spp., Anthracnose, Botrytis, Early blight, Powdery mildew

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, and precautions regarding use with other pesticides.

Ultra-Pure Oil

(mineral oil), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew

0

4 hr

Yes

See label for specific rates, application recommendations, precautions, and fungicide compatibility.

Vacciplant

(laminarin), P

Vegetables & Strawberries

Anthracnose, Bacterial speck, Bacterial spot, Early blight, Phytophthora blight, Powdery mildew

0

4 hr

No

Start applications preventatively, when weather conditions are favorable for disease development. Repeat applications until disease conditions end. Add a labeled copper product to VacciPlant if the disease symptoms appear.

Veg'Lys, Brandt

(garlic oil), NC

Vegetables & Strawberries

Broad-spectrum bactericide and fungicide

0

0

Yes

See label for specific rates and application recommendations and precautions. Do not apply when temps are above 90°F. Ingredients are exempt from FIFRA.

Zayin

(geraniol)

Vegetables & Strawberries

Powdery mildew

0

0

See label for specific rates and application recommendations.

1FRAC code (fungicide group): Number (33 and 44) and letters (NC and P) are used to distinguish the fungicide mode of action groups. All fungicides within the same group (with same number or letter) indicate the same active ingredient or similar mode of action. This information must be considered for the fungicide resistance management decisions. However, products with NC or P are considered low risk and don’t require any rotation unless specifically directed on the label. NC = not classified, includes mineral oils, organic oils, potassium bicarbonate, and other materials of biological origin; P = host plant defense inducers. Source: FRAC Code List 2021 http://www.frac.info/ (FRAC = Fungicide Resistance Action Committee).

2Information provided in this table applies only to Florida. Be sure to read a current product label before applying any product. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsement by UF/IFAS Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned.

Table 3. Biopesticides labeled for management of nematode pests of many crops.

Pest

MOA Code

Active Ingredient

Product(s)

Rate

Days to Harvest

REI

(Hours)

Remarks

Nematodes

n/a

Burkholderia rinojensis heat-killed

Majestene

4–8 qt

0

4

OMRI-listed.

n/a

Purpureocillium lilicanus

Melocon

2–4 lb

0

4

OMRI-listed.

n/a

Myrothecium verrucaria fermentation product

DiTera

See label

0

4

OMRI-listed

n/a

Mustard oil + capsaicin

Dazitol

6.25 gal

0

4

OMRI-listed. Apply 3–5 days preplant or 1/4 rate postplant.

n/a

Azadirachtin

AzaGuard, Ecozine Plus, Molt-X

See label

0

4

OMRI-listed.

n/a

Thyme oil

Nemakill, Promax, Thyme Guard

See label

0

4

OMRI-listed.

Publication #CV295

Date: 2021-08-16
Smith, Hugh A
Vallad, Gary E
Peres, Natalia A
Desaeger, Johan

Related Topics

Management Commercial

About this Publication

This document is CV295. Original publication date August 2013. Revised May 2021. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

About the Authors

Natalia Peres, professor, Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast Research and Education Center; Gary E. Vallad, professor, Plant Pathology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; Johan Desaeger, assistant professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; and Hugh A. Smith, associate professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, UF/IFAS Gulf Coast REC; UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Contacts

  • Hugh Smith
  • Peter Dittmar

The use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information. UF/IFAS does not guarantee or warranty the products named, and references to them in this publication do not signify our approval to the exclusion of other products of suitable composition.

Use pesticides safely. Read and follow directions on the manufacturer's label.