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Concepts for Sustainable Landscape Mosaics

Tina McIntyre, Rachel Gutner, and Sandra Wilson
Pentas lanceolata (red) is interspersed with Helianthus debilis (yellow) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (purple) in the front yard of a residential home.
Figure 1. Pentas lanceolata (red) is interspersed with Helianthus debilis (yellow) and Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (purple) in the front yard of a residential home.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Scorpion tail, Heliotropium angiospermum, in the front of the mosaic garden, with Calliandra hematocephala (pink), Stachytarpheta frantzii (purple), Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (yellow) in the background.
Figure 2. Scorpion tail, Heliotropium angiospermum, in the front of the mosaic garden, with Calliandra hematocephala (pink), Stachytarpheta frantzii (purple), and Senna mexicana var. chapmanii (yellow) in the background.
Credit: Rachel Gutner, UF/IFAS

Introduction

Florida is rapidly urbanizing, and with more and more new residents and businesses arriving daily, Florida’s water resources may become limited in the future. If Florida continues to develop on trend, more than one-third of Florida’s land will be developed by 2070 (UF GeoPlan Center et al. 2017). Nationwide, landscape irrigation is estimated to account for nearly one-third of all residential water use (EPA 2017). In order to be a steward of Florida’s natural resources, it is important to create landscapes that do not use excessive amounts of water, fertilizer, pesticides and other resources. The concepts of Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ have been around since 1991 and continue to offer sustainable landscaping principles, including what is outlined in this document. This EDIS publication is for Florida homeowners, residential and commercial property managers, and landscape architects interested in creating aesthetically pleasing landscapes and to help individuals choose the right plant for the right place.

This document considers the need for sustainable landscaping in Florida, as well as the desire for aesthetically pleasing landscapes. As proposed by Piet Oudolf, a prominent Dutch garden designer, there is beauty in all seasons, and the dieback of a plant, if placed properly, can add to the overall effect of the garden. In this publication, we define a mosaic as a landscape composed of plants that bloom at specific times, have seasonality (including dieback), and exhibit different textures, shapes, and sizes. One can create a mosaic image of sustainable landscaping by selecting and utilizing Florida-friendly and native plants.

Landscaping offers a great opportunity for homeowners to mimic Florida’s beautiful natural environments and incorporate water-wise plant selections into their designs. We’ve created two primary mosaic concepts that embrace and highlight a certain theme. They include the pollinator concept and the seasonal concept, which can be used separately or combined to help landscapers, homeowners, landscape architects, and HOAs (homeowners’ associations) responsibly choose appealing plants to meet that conceptual goal.

Green spaces, such as residential yards, commercial properties, and shared communal parks, enrich our lives in many different ways. Horticulture is linked to improved mental health, improved human performance and energy, reduced stress, and much more. There are also economic benefits to investing in green spaces, such as reduced healthcare costs and increased property values. Green spaces reduce noise pollution and stormwater runoff and help to improve water quality by absorbing nutrients from pet waste, excess landscape fertilizers, and toxic organic chemicals such as pesticides before they enter surrounding waterways. They also reduce heat and cold damage in urban areas (International Society for Horticultural Science 2012). By embracing these plant concepts and proposed species in your yard, managed area, or shared space, you and your community can actualize these mental, physical, and financial benefits.

Site Preparation and Management

The best way to control weeds is to prepare your land effectively prior to installation. With a little time and planning, you can manage weeds by solarizing the area (McSorley and Gill 2019). Solarize your garden space by removing as much of the existing undesired plants as you can, then wet the soil thoroughly. Cover the area with 1 ml thick polyethylene (PE) heavy-duty clear plastic and secure the edges with landscape ties or soil to trap heat, prevent photosynthesis, and smother the remaining unwanted plants or seeds. Leave this covering on for about six to eight weeks. When you remove the plastic, all the roots of the weeds in the upper 4"–6" of soil should be dead. Because this treatment only targets the upper part of the soil, deeper soil may still be affected by pests, and after 3–4 months, the effects of solarization diminish (McSorley and Gill 2019).

Soil tests, which can be sent to the UF/IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL), will help determine the site conditions most accurately. See the pH column in Table 1 below to determine if the selected plants will do well in your site. Most plants will benefit from soil enhancement, but native plants are particularly well suited to sandy soil and acidic conditions. If you wish to enhance your soil, we recommend mixing organic material into the existing soil during this phase (Treadwell et al. 2019).

Although native plants typically require less maintenance and fewer resources, it is virtually impossible to create a landscape with no maintenance. Weed control (including invasive species removal) is important to maintaining the aesthetics of a landscape. However, before weeds can be controlled, they must be identified. Landscape managers or property owners should identify the weed and determine if it is problematic before removing it. Some weeds, if not invasive, might be a good addition to the landscape, depending on its purpose. To identify a plant you are unfamiliar with, visit the UF/IFAS Weed Identification Guide, submit a specimen to your local Master Gardener Volunteer program, or submit a specimen to the Distance Diagnostic and Identification System.

After planting, two to three inches of mulch should be applied to the landscape to suppress weed germination, hold moisture in the root zone, prevent erosion and provide aesthetic uniformity. Pine needles and other leaves are a sustainable selection while being readily available most of the year. Lightly pruning plants at certain times of the year will help regenerate growth and promote blooms. Plant replacement might also be necessary if some plants fail to thrive due to natural causes.

Pollinator Concept

A pollinator is any animal that helps carry pollen from the male part of the flower to the female part of the same or another flower. Pollination must occur for the plants to become fertilized and produce fruits, seeds, and young plants. The relationship between pollinators and plants is one of the oldest and most striking symbiotic relationships that still exists today. This symbiosis can be observed in your yard: hummingbirds are naturally drawn to the reddish flowers of coral porterweed, Stachytarpheta mutabilis, and their long tongues are perfectly adapted to the long broad tubes of the flower, which lead to a high nectar reward. Hummingbirds pollinate by tending to plants with long nectaries: as they forage for nectar, pollen sticks to their beaks and faces and spreads to other plants. Through this relationship, pollinators feed and the female plant parts are fertilized. If successful, plant pollination leads to seeds that, when germinated, differ genetically from the parent. Further, the leaves of some pollinator plants may serve as food for the larval stages (i.e., caterpillars) of certain butterflies and some insects. Plants that also function as larval host plants are designated in the plant matrix. This dance and relationship that is mutually beneficial and reciprocal carries the species involved through time and space.

Pollinators are essential to human existence; their efforts contribute to a third of all food that humans eat. Even if pollinators are not directly pollinating human food crops, those plants often feed other organisms that we depend on. Pollinators also contribute greatly to healthy ecosystems because they transport pollen to plants that stabilize our soil, clean our air, supply oxygen, and support wildlife.

It is important to provide a habitat oasis to native and nonnative pollinators, such as bees, butterflies, and wasps. Some birds and hummingbirds are also effective pollinators. Many birds consume the fruits and excrete the seeds, which spreads the plant offspring. By creating a pollinator-focused landscape, you create a refuge for these vital creatures. Table 1 outlines many plant species that are suitable for pollinator gardens, with host species denoted by a dagger. Additionally, mobile web applications, such as the FFL Plant Guide, are available to assist with choosing native and nonnative pollinator plants and to learn about Florida’s diverse butterfly (https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/butterflies) and bee pollinators (https://ffl.ifas.ufl.edu/bees).

Because this concept focuses on wildlife, it is important not to use harsh chemicals when managing weeds. Some chemicals and common weed killers can also kill some species of bees, particularly honeybees (McSorley and Gill 2019).

Seasonal Concept

Florida’s natural ecosystems typically have a colorful display in fall and spring. Table 1 offers a list of plants that bloom by season. The “Year-Round” section contains plants that bloom throughout the year.

Because the list is primarily organized by bloom period, landscapers and homeowners also have the option of creating a colorful seasonal landscape. Florida’s unique, semitropical environment creates a hotbed of plants that respond to seasonal changes. These plants can make for an eye-catching yard full of blooms up to 6 months out of the year. We encourage landscapers and homeowners to explore the idea of nature-inspired, seasonally based landscapes because they highlight Florida’s many attractive plants. With the tendency for seasonally interesting plants to die back, many plants that are listed provide strong structural integrity with evergreen foliage.

Plant Matrix

Listed here are Florida-friendly plants organized by seasonal bloom period. All plants in this list are pollinator plants, meaning that their blooms provide a significant source of either nectar or pollen. Some of the species also function as host plants, providing food and resources for the larval stages of adult pollinators. The growing information for each plant is included, such as USDA hardiness zones, pH preference, light and moisture preferences, native status, and perennial/annual condition.

Because all annuals selected reseed, the homeowner/groundskeeper does not have to worry about replacing the entire section when the plant dies back. Some perennials, marked with an asterisk, also reseed, but not as prolifically.

Table 1. This table lists selected Florida-friendly plants in order of bloom period: fall, spring, or year-round. Native status, USDA Zone, and pH are listed as well. N/A in the pH column means that the preferred pH was not available. An asterisk (*) on the binomial denotes a reseeding perennial. A dagger (†) on the binomial name of the plant signifies that the species serves as a host plant.

Binomial

Common Name

Native

USDA Zone

pH

Wet

Dry

Sun

Part-Shade

Shade

P/A

Fall Bloom

Ampelaster carolinianus (a.k.a. Symphyotricum carolinianum)

Climbing aster

Yes

8a–11

5.1–6.5

x

x

x

 

 

P

Asclepias incarnata

Swamp milkweed

Yes

3b–11

6.5–8.0

x

 

x

 

 

P

Asclepias perennis

Aquatic milkweed

Yes

6a–9b

5.1–7.5

x

 

x

x

 

P

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Dwarf poinciana

No

9a–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Calliandra haematocephala

Powderpuff tree

No

9a–11

6.0–7.5

x

x

x

x

 

P

Callicarpa americana

(Figure 14)

American beautyberry

Yes

6–10b

5.2–7.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Carphephorus paniculatus (Figure 9)

Deer tongue/hairy chaffhead

Yes

8a–9b

5.8–7.0

x

x

x

 

 

P

Chamaecrista fasciculata

Partridge pea

Yes

3–9b

6.0–8.0

 

x

x

 

 

A

Chrysopsis floridana

Florida goldenaster

Yes

9a–9b

5.5–7.0

 

x

x

 

 

P

Chrysopsis mariana

Maryland goldenaster

Yes

4a–10b

5.1–7.5

x

 

x

 

 

P

Chrysopsis subulata

Scrubland goldenaster

Yes

8a–11

N/A

 

x

x

 

 

P

Conradina canescens

False rosemary

Yes

8a–9b

<6.0

 

x

x

 

 

P

Echinacea purpurea

Purple coneflower

Yes

3–8b

6.5–7.2

 

x

x

x

 

P

Heliotropium curassavicum

Seaside/salt heliotrope

Yes

3a–11

6.5–8.5

x

x

x

x

 

P

Liatris spicata

Slender head blazing star

Yes

8a–10b

5.6–7.5

x

x

x

 

 

P

Monarda punctata (Figure 3)†

Spotted bee balm; horsemint

Yes

3a–8b

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Muhlenbergia capillaris

Pink muhly grass

Yes

7a–11

5.8–6.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Ocimum basilicum

Sweet basil

No

2a–11

5.1–8.5

 

x

 

x

x

P

Oenothera lindheimeri

Whirling butterflies/beeblossom

No

5–9b

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Palafoxia integrifolia

Coastal plain palafox

Yes

9a–10b

4.5–7.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Passiflora incarnata

Purple passion vine

Yes

5a–10b

6.1–7.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Pityopsis graminifolia

Narrow leaf silk grass

Yes

8a–11

5.8–7.0

 

x

x

 

 

P

Polygonella polygama

Jointweed

Yes

9a–10b

4.5–5.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Psychotria nervosa

Wild coffee

Yes

9a–11

6.1–7.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Silphium asteriscus*

Starry rosinweed

Yes

8a–10b

5.1–7.6

 

x

x

x

 

P

Rudbeckia hirta (Figure 10)

Black-eyed Susan

Yes

8a–10b

6.0–7.0

 

x

x

 

 

A

Rudbeckia laciniata

Green headed/cutleaf coneflower

Yes

8a–8b

4.5–7.0

x

 

x

x

 

P

Ruellia caroliniensis

Carolina wild petunia

Yes

6a–10b

7.9–8.5

x

x

x

x

x

P

Salvia azurea

Azure blue sage

Yes

5–9b

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Salvia miniata

Belize sage

No

9a–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Senna ligustrina

Privet senna

Yes

9a–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Senna mexicana var. chapmanii† (Figure 2)

Bahama senna

Yes

10a–11

>7.0

 

x

x

 

 

P

Serenoa repens

Saw palmetto

Yes

6a–11

5.6–6.5

x

x

x

 

 

P

Solidago odora*†

Sweet goldenrod

Yes

8b–11

5.6–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Solidago sempervirens*†

Seaside goldenrod

Yes

3a–8a

5.5–7.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Sorghastrum secundum

Lopsided Indiangrass

Yes

8a–9b

6.1–6.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Spartina bakeri

Sand cordgrass

Yes

8a–10b

6.8–7.2

 

x

x

 

 

P

Stokesia laevis

Stoke's aster

Yes

8a–10b

5.6–7.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Trichostema dichotomum

Blue curls

Yes

8a–11

N/A

 

x

x

 

 

A

Tripsacum floridanum

Dwarf fakahatchee grass

Yes

8a–10b

7.9–8.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Vernonia angustifolia

Narrow-leaf ironweed

Yes

8a–9b

5.1–7.5

 

x

x

x

 

A

Spring Bloom

 

Asclepias incarnata

Swamp milkweed

Yes

3b–11

6.5–8.0

x

 

x

 

 

P

Asimina obovata

Flag pawpaw

Yes

8a–10b

6.0–6.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Asimina pygmaea

Dwarf pawpaw

Yes

7a–10b

5.0–7.0

x

x

x

x

 

P

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Dwarf poinciana

No

9a–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Calamintha ashei

Ashe's calamint

Yes

8a–9b

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

 

 

P

Calliandra haematocephala

Powderpuff tree

No

9a–11

6.0–7.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Callicarpa americana

American beautyberry

Yes

6–10b

5.2–7.0

x

x

x

x

 

P

Coccoloba uvifera

Seagrape

Yes

9a–11

4.5–7.2

 

x

x

x

 

P

Coreopsis lanceolata

Large-flower tickseed

Yes

4–9b

6.0–7.0

x

x

x

x

x

A

Duranta erecta

Sapphire showers duranta

No

9b–11

5.6–7.5

 

x

x

x

x

P

Dyschoriste oblongifolia

Oblong snakeherb

Yes

8a–11

6.0–7.2

x

x

x

x

 

P

Heliotropium curassavicum

Seaside/salt heliotrope

Yes

3a–11

6.5–8.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Ilex glabra

Gallberry

Yes

8–10a

4.5–6.5

 

x

x

x

x

P

Lonicera sempervirens

Coral honeysuckle

Yes

8–9b

4.5–7.2

x

 

 

x

 

P

Magnolia grandiflora

Southern magnolia

Yes

8–9b

4.5–7.2

x

x

x

x

 

P

Magnolia virginiana

Sweet bay magnolia

Yes

8–9b

4.5–6.5

 

x

x

x

x

P

Myrcianthes fragrans (Figure 7)

Simpson's stopper

Yes

10a–11

7.9–8.2

 

x

x

 

 

P

Oenothera simulans

Southern beeblossom

Yes

7a–11

N/A

 

x

x

x

 

P

Passiflora incarnata

Purple passion vine

Yes

5a–10b

6.1–7.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Phlox divaricata

Wild blue phlox/phlox woodland

Yes

3a–8b

6.8–7.2

 

x

x

x

 

A

Phlox drummondii

Annual phlox

No

2a–11

6.1–7.2

 

x

x

 

 

A

Psychotria nervosa

Wild coffee

Yes

9a–11

6.1–7.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Rhododendron austrinum

or Rhododendron canescens

Azalea

Yes

8–10b

4.5–6.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Rudbeckia hirta

Black-eyed Susan

Yes

8a–10b

6.0–7.0

 

x

x

x

x

A

Ruellia caroliniensis

Carolina wild petunia

Yes

6a–10b

7.9–8.5

x

 

x

 

 

P

Scutellaria integrifolia*

Skullcap

Yes

6b–9a

4.8–5.2

 

x

x

x

 

P

Silphium asteriscus*

Starry rosinweed

Yes

8a–10b

5.1–7.6

 

x

x

 

 

P

Stachytarpheta frantzii (Figure 15)

Large-flowered purple porterweed

No

9b–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Porterweed

Yes

8b–11

6.1–7.8

x

x

x

x

x

P

Trichostema dichotomum

Blue curls

Yes

8a–11

N/A

 

x

x

x

 

P

Tripsacum floridanum

Dwarf fakahatchee grass

Yes

8a–10b

7.9–8.5

 

x

x

 

 

A

Vaccinium darrowi

Little blueberry

Yes

8–10b

<7.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Vaccinium myrsinities

Shiny blueberry

Yes

8a–11

<7.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Viburnum obovatum

Walter's viburnum

Yes

8–10b

4.5–8.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Viburnum odoratissimum

Sweet viburnum

No

8b–10a

4.5–8.0

 

x

x

x

 

P

Year-Round Bloom

 

Berlandiera subacaulis

Florida greeneyes

Yes

8b–11

5.1–7.5

x

x

x

x

 

P

Calliandra emarginata

Dwarf powderpuff

No

9a–11

7.9–8.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Funastrum clausum

White twinevine

Yes

9b–11

6.0–8.5

x

x

x

x

 

P

Gaillardia pulchella (Figure 5)

Indian blanket flower

Yes

8a–11

7.0–8.5

 

x

x

 

 

A

Glandularia maritima

Beach verbena

Yes

9a–11

Calcareous but adapable

 

x

x

x

 

P

Hamelia patens

Firebush

Yes

9a–11

5.5–8.2

 

x

x

x

 

P

Helianthus debilis (Figures 1, 6, and 16)

Dune sunflower

Yes

8b–10

5.5–8.2

 

x

x

x

 

P

Heliotropium angiospermum* (Figure 2)

Scorpion tail

Yes

8a–9b

7.9–8.5

 

x

x

x

 

P

Heliotropium polyphyllum

Pineland heliotrope

Yes

8a–11

6.1–6.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Lantana depressa

Florida lantana or gold lantana/cream carpet

Yes

10a–11

>7.2

 

x

x

 

 

P

Lantana involucrata (Figure 13)

Buttonsage, wild lantana

Yes

8a–11

6.6–7.3

 

x

x

 

 

P

Passiflora suberosa

Corkystem passionflower

Yes

9a–11

7.5–8.5

 

x

x

 

 

P

Pentas lanceolata (Figures 4 and 8)

Egyptian starcluster

No

10a–11

6.5–7.1

 

x

x

x

 

P

Phyla nodiflora

Frogfruit

Yes

6a–11

4.5–8.0

x

x

x

x

x

P

Rivina humilis*

Rouge plant, pigeon berry

Yes

8a–10b

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Salvia leucantha

Mexican sage

No

4a–12

7.6–9.0

 

x

x

 

 

P

Salvia longispicata × farinacea

Mystic spires blue sage

No

7–10a

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

x

x

P

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

Blue porterweed

Yes

8b–11

6.1–7.8

 

x

x

x

 

P

Zamia pumila

Coontie

Yes

8b–11

4.5–8.0

 

x

x

x

x

P

Special thanks to Dr. Timur Momol, District Director for UF/IFAS Extension Central District, for funding and inspiration for this project.

References

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UF GeoPlan Center, 1000 Friends of Florida, and Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Resources. 2017. “What Is Your Vision for Florida’s Future?” 2070 Report. https://1000friendsofflorida.org/florida2070/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/FOF-1080-Newsletter-Spring-2017-v12-web.pdf

UF/IFAS Gardening Solutions. 2013. “Working in Your Florida Soil.” https://gardeningsolutions.ifas.ufl.edu/care/planting/florida-soil.html

USDA, NRCS. 2021. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov/java/

Colorful bracts of spotted bee balm (Monarda puntata) and floral visitation by a wasp pollinator.
Figure 3. Colorful bracts of spotted bee balm (Monarda puntata) and floral visitation by a wasp pollinator.  
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS 

 

Pollinator on Bidens alba, which is typically targeted as a weed but can be a good source for pollinators. Also pictured, Pentas lanceolata.
Figure 4. Pollinator on Bidens alba, which is typically targeted as a weed but can be a good source for pollinators. Also pictured, Pentas lanceolata.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Gaillardia pulchella providing great ground coverage for soil and habitat for pollinators.
Figure 5. Gaillardia pulchella providing great ground coverage for soil and habitat for pollinators.  
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS 

 

Rapidly growing dune sunflower, Helianthus debilis.
Figure 6. Rapidly growing dune sunflower, Helianthus debilis.  
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS 

 

Berries and leaves of the native Simpson’s stopper, Myrcianthes fragrans.
Figure 7. Berries and leaves of the native Simpson’s stopper, Myrcianthes fragrans.  
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS 

 

Butterfly on Pentas lanceolata.
Figure 8. Butterfly on Pentas lanceolata.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Bumble bee on hairy chaffhead, Carphephorus paniculatus.
Figure 9. Bumble bee on hairy chaffhead, Carphephorus paniculatus.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Rudbeckia sp. cultivated in a backyard.
Figure 10. Rudbeckia sp. cultivated in a backyard.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Phlox sp. growing after reseeding itself from a previous year.
Figure 11. Phlox sp. growing after reseeding itself from a previous year.
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

Rudbeckia fulgida growing in a cultivated governmental landscape.
Figure 12. Rudbeckia fulgida growing in a cultivated governmental landscape.
Credit: Vincent Marcucci

 

Lantana involucrata.
Figure 13. Lantana involucrata.
Credit: Vincent Marcucci

 

American beauty berry, Callicarpa americana, showcasing its beautiful purple berries.
Figure 14. American beauty berry, Callicarpa americana, showcasing its beautiful purple berries.
Credit: Vincent Marcucci

 

Purple porterweed, Stachytarpheta frantzii, a common spring bloomer of Florida’s natural areas.
Figure 15. Purple porterweed, Stachytarpheta frantzii, a common spring bloomer of Florida’s natural areas.
Credit: Vincent Marcucci

 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (purple) is showcased with Pentas lanceolata (red) and Helianthus debilis (yellow).
Figure 16. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (purple) is showcased with Pentas lanceolata (red) and Helianthus debilis (yellow).
Credit: Tina McIntyre, UF/IFAS

 

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Peer Reviewed

Publication #ENH1341

Release Date:September 12th, 2022

Related Experts

McIntyre, Tina L.

County agent

University of Florida

Wilson, Sandra B.

Specialist/SSA/RSA

University of Florida

Related Topics

Fact Sheet
CommercialHomeowner

About this Publication

This document is ENH1341, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension. Original publication date June 2021. Revised September 2022. Visit the EDIS website at https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu for the currently supported version of this publication.

About the Authors

Tina McIntyre, Florida-Friendly Landscaping™ Agent, UF/IFAS Extension Seminole County; Rachel Gutner, undergraduate student, University of Central Florida; and Sandra Wilson, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL 32611.

Contacts

  • Tina McIntyre
  • Sandra Wilson